In nursing homes and among high utilizers of medical services, patients with Rocilinostat in vivo depression incur significant increases in direct costs for medical care.57-60 Longitudinal data demonstrate that depressive symptomatology in elderly primary care patients is associated with increased physician visits, medication use, emergency room visits, and outpatient charges.61,62 Among medical inpatients, major depression has been associated with increased utilization of health care resources, including longer hospital stays and greater mortality, for example, in those undergoing elective Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical coronary artery bypass grafting.63-65 After discharge, depression accounts for a substantial increase in ambulatory health care
use.66 The general health care sector is by far the principal source of treatment for older persons with
depression. Recently analyzed data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey show that over 55% of older persons Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical using mental health care received this care from general physicians. In contrast, less than 3% of individuals over age 65 report having received outpatient treatment from mental health professionals, a proportion lower than that for any other adult age group.67 The scope and responsibility of primary care providers are being expanded and redefined in many health care systems. Primary care providers Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are charged with greater responsibility for diagnosis, treatment, and longterm management in all areas of health care,
including care of older patients with mental disorders. That being the case, older people may derive substantial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical benefit from increased sensitivity to identification of depression on the part of their primary care physicians. Interventions directed toward improvement, recognition, and treatment, however, have not necessarily translated into added benefit when compared to practice as usual in the primary care setting.68-70 Suicide and late-life depression Suicide rates increase with age in most countries of the world, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical men outnumber women suicide completers by a substantial amount. Recent studies of completed suicide have reinforced the close association with major depressive illness, especially in the elderly.71,72 Electron transport chain With increased age, the relative importance of the contribution of depression to suicide risk is magnified. The typical clinical profile of the older suicide completer is lateonset, nonpsychotic, unipolar depression of moderate severity uncomplicated by substance abuse or personality disorder. Tragically, the depression in these older people was rarely recognized or treated. The failure to recognize and treat depression was not due to restricted access to care. A majority of these depressed suicide victims had seen a health care provider in the last month of life, 39% in the last week, and 20% on the day of suicide.73 ‘ITtie article by Bruce and Pearson in this issue of Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience examines this topic.