In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity (PAA)

In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity (PAA). The phenomenon is “predictive” because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is “anticipatory” because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an “activity” because it involves

changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does), but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. P5091 mw The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation JQ1 molecular weight bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical

implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications.”
“Biosurfactants are produced by microorganisms, especially those of the genus Pseudomonas. This study is concerned with the recovery of rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa P029-GVIIA, using molasses Selleck MK 2206 as substrate. A central compound design 2(3) in triplicate

at the central point was used to evaluate, the influence of the centrifugation time, the agitation speed, and the pH on the amount of rhamnolipids precipitated by HCl (2N). A 2(4) factorial design in triplicate at the central point was used to investigate the influence of the pH (3-10), temperature (30 to 50 degrees C), the concentration of carbon (1-3% w/v), and the agitation speed (100-200rpm) on the adsorption of rhamnolipids to activated carbon. The tests showed that the adsorption is governed particularly by the pH and the temperature, as well as by the temperaturexpH interaction. A pseudo-first order kinetic model successfully fitted the data, showing that the adsorbent had the ability to adsorb approximately 17.16mg of rhamnolipids/gram of activated carbon.”
“Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS.

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