influenzae reached a higher density when invading resident populations of either #www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-477736.html randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# S. aureus or S. pneumoniae than in the absence of these residents (Figure 4). A similar increase in the bacterial density of H. influenzae was observed in
vitro; when mixtures of these strains were grown in broth for 6 hours, H. influenzae density was 20%(± 14) greater with S. pneumoniae and 19%(± 3) greater with S. aureus present than when grown alone (data not shown). Figure 4 Invasion of a host colonized with another species. Established populations were inoculated into groups of 10-22 three-day-old neonatal rats 48 hours prior to pulsing 105 cfu of a different species or PBS. The 25th to 75th percentiles of nasal wash and epithelium samples taken 48 hours after bacterial challenge are represented by the box plots, with the bold horizontal bar indicating the median value, circles outlying values and dotted error bars. T-test P values < 0.005 are represented by **. Resident bacterial density was not significantly different from un-invaded rats in any combination of species. Strain-specific, innate immune-mediated interactions between H. influenzae
and S. pneumoniae We had expected to detect immune-mediated competition between H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae, as observed in a mouse model of colonization by Lysenko and colleagues . However, we saw no evidence of competition between H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae with the strains we initially used: TIGR4 and Eagan (Figure 4). To investigate further, we tested one additional strain of S. pneumoniae, Poland(6b)-20.
We found that this particular strain of S. pneumoniae had a reduced see more density in the nasal wash, but not the nasal epithelium, when invading in a neonatal rat with an established H. influenzae population Fluorouracil ic50 (Figure 5). This reduction in Poland-20′s population did not occur in neonatal rats which had been depleted of complement or neutrophils. Figure 5 Neutrophil- and Complement- Mediated Competition. Three-day-old neonatal rats were treated with either anti-neutrophil serum (-neutrophil) or cobra venom factor (-complement) or PBS and inoculated with either 106cfu of H. influenzae or PBS (alone). Forty-eight hours later, 104 cfu of Poland(6b)-20 S. pneumoniae was inoculated. The 25th to 75th percentiles of nasal wash samples taken 48 hours after S. pneumoniae inoculation are represented by the box plots, with the horizontal bar indicating the median value and circles outlying values. P-value from Mann Whitney U test comparing the bacterial density of previously uninfected rats and those with established populations of H. influenzae. Dashed line represents limit of detection. To explain why we could only observe this in one of the two strains tested and only then in the nasal wash, we hypothesized that either induction of or susceptibility to the immune response must differ in these strains and locations.