iNOS expression and NO production are known to be dominantly regu

iNOS expression and NO production are known to be dominantly regulated by the transcription factor NF-κB.23,40 Therefore, we first checked whether rRv2626c activates the NF-κB transcription factor in macrophages. RAW 264·7 macrophages were either left untreated or treated with rRv2626c (5 μg). The positive control group received LPS plus IFN-γ. Nuclear extracts were prepared from these

cells and the expression of NF-κB was mounted using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. It was observed that stimulation with rRv2626c caused an increase in the intensity of the NF-κB complex Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor in vitro compared with the untreated group (Fig. 4a; compare lane 4 with lane 2) suggesting induced expression of NF-κB. A similar increase was apparent in cells stimulated with LPS plus IFN-γ (lane 3) as compared with the control (lane 2). The specificity of the DNA–protein interaction was confirmed by homologous and heterologous competition during the binding reaction. In the presence of a 100-fold molar excess of unlabelled wild-type consensus NF-κB oligonucleotides, the complex completely disappeared MS-275 purchase (lane 6) but was unaffected even in the presence of a 100-fold molar excess of unlabelled NF-κB mutant oligonucleotides (lane 7) that carried a mutation in the bases critical for NF-κB binding. To conclusively demonstrate the specific involvement of NF-κB, a nuclear

extract prepared from RAW 264·7 cells treated with PDTC, a specific inhibitor of this transcription factor,41–43 was used in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. PDTC treatment was found to inhibit rRv2626c-induced NF-κB activity (compare lane 5 with lane 4). The levels of nuclear p50 and p65 subunits of NF-κB present in rRv2626c-stimulated GPX6 macrophages were further confirmed using NF-κB-specific antibody. The immunoblotting results again showed increased nuclear translocation of p50 and p65, indicating

that rRv2626c induces NF-κB activity (Fig. 4b; compare lane 3 with lane 1) in macrophages, and this was almost comparable to that induced by LPS plus IFN-γ (lane 2). Treatment with PDTC, as expected, caused a reduction in nuclear translocation of both p50 and p65 subunits of NF-κB (lane 4). Having shown the direct involvement of NF-κB, we once again assayed for activation of iNOS by western blotting as well as NO production in the presence or absence of PDTC followed by stimulation with rRv2626c. While rRv2626c induced iNOS expression (Fig. 4c; lane 3) comparable to that induced by LPS plus IFN-γ (Fig. 4c; lane 2), treatment with PDTC inhibited rRv2626c-induced iNOS expression (Fig. 4c; compare lane 4 with lane 3). The subsequent production of NO in these experimental groups was measured. Again, it was observed that rRv2626c increased NO production as a function of concentration (Fig. 4d; bars 2, 3 and 4), and NO production was inhibited by PDTC treatment (Fig. 4d; bars 5, 6 and 7) in a concentration-dependent manner.

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