Materials and methods: Twenty-one healthy male professional soccer players, average 23.2 (+/- 3.6) years old, without history of injury were
selected. The athletes were assessed in an isokinetic dynamometer at three angular velocities: 60, 180 and 300 degrees/s, and from this assessment the peak of torque and calculated H:Q ratio at the three velocities were obtained. The triple hop distance was also used to calculate the hopped distance in meters. Results: No significant difference was found between the lower extremities (dominant and non-dominant) (p = 0.23). Also, a weak relationship between extensor torque and functional test at the three velocities was observed (Dominant: 60 degrees/s_r = 0.38; 180 Sonidegib degrees/s_r = 0.43*; 300 degrees/s_r = 0.26. Non dominant: 60 degrees/s_r = 0.36; 180 degrees/s_r = 0.30; 300 degrees/s_r = 0.48*) (*p <= 0.05). Selleckchem AZD2171 Similar results were found for H:Q ratio (Dominant: 60_r = 0.01; 180_r = 0.11; 300_r = -0.02. Non-dominant: 60_r = -0.20; 180_r = -0.15;
300_r = -0.18). Conclusion: Due to a weak relationship, the isokinetic test cannot be replaced by the triple hop distance (functional test) for muscular function assessment.”
“After modeling the large-scale climate response patterns of leaf unfolding, leaf coloring and growing season length of evergreen and deciduous French temperate trees, we predicted the effects of eight future climate scenarios on phenological events. We used the ground observations
from 103 temperate forests (10 species and 3,708 trees) from the French Renecofor Network and for the period 1997-2006. We applied RandomForest algorithms to predict phenological events from climatic selleck products and ecological variables. With the resulting models, we drew maps of phenological events throughout France under present climate and under two climatic change scenarios (A2, B2) and four global circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM2, CSIRO2 and PCM). We compared current observations and predicted values for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. On average, spring development of oaks precedes that of beech, which precedes that of conifers. Annual cycles in budburst and leaf coloring are highly correlated with January, March-April and October-November weather conditions through temperature, global solar radiation or potential evapotranspiration depending on species. At the end of the twenty-first century, each model predicts earlier budburst (mean: 7 days) and later leaf coloring (mean: 13 days) leading to an average increase in the growing season of about 20 days (for oaks and beech stands). The A2-HadCM3 hypothesis leads to an increase of up to 30 days in many areas.