“Microalgal production technologies are seen as increasingly attractive for bioenergy production to improve fuel security and reduce CO2
emissions. Photosynthetically derived fuels are a renewable, potentially carbon-neutral and scalable alternative reserve. Microalgae have particular promise because they can be produced on non-arable land and utilize saline and wastewater streams. Furthermore, emerging microalgal technologies can be used to produce a range of products such as biofuels, protein-rich animal feeds, chemical feedstocks (e.g. bio-plastic precursors) and higher-value products. This review focuses on the selection, breeding and engineering of microalgae for improved biomass and biofuel conversion efficiencies.”
“Blind people rely much more on voices compared to sighted individuals when identifying other people. Previous Selleck CHIR-99021 research has suggested a faster processing of auditory input in blind individuals than sighted controls AZD4547 and an enhanced activation of temporal cortical regions during voice processing. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to single out the sub-processes of auditory person identification
that change and allow for superior voice processing after congenital blindness. A priming paradigm was employed in which two successive voices (S1 and S2) of either the same (50% of the trials) or different actors were presented. Congenitally blind and matched sighted participants made an old-young decision on the S2. During the pre-experimental familiarization with the stimuli, congenitally blind individuals showed faster learning rates than sighted controls. Reaction times were shorter in person-congruent trials than in person-incongruent trials in
both groups. ERPs to S2 stimuli in person-incongruent as compared to person-congruent trials were significantly enhanced Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase at early processing stages (100-160 ms) in congenitally blind participants only. A later negative ERP effect ( > 200 ms) was found in both groups. The scalp topographies of the experimental effects were characterized by a central and parietal distribution in the sighted but a more posterior distribution in the congenitally blind. These results provide evidence for an improvement of early voice processing stages and a reorganization of the person identification system as a neural correlate of compensatory behavioral improvements following congenital blindness. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Previous reports have shown that cholesterol depletion of the membrane envelope of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) impairs viral infection of target cells. A potential function of this lipid in later steps of the viral life cycle remained controversial, with secretion of virions and subviral particles (SVP) being either inhibited or not affected, depending on the experimental approach employed to decrease the intracellular cholesterol level.