On the Flexner Report’s 100th anniversary, medicine is challenged

On the Flexner Report’s 100th anniversary, medicine is challenged to realize Flexner’s full vision for medical education to ensure that physicians are prepared to lead lives of compassion and service as well as to perform with technical proficiency. To meet the complex medical and social challenges of the next century, medical educators must continue to promote cognitive

expertise while concurrently supporting “professional formation”-the moral and professional development of students, their ability to stay true to their personal service values and the core values of the profession, and the integration of their individual maturation with growth in clinical competency. The goal of professional formation is to anchor students to foundational principles while helping them navigate the inevitable moral Fer-1 research buy conflicts in medical practice. The consequences of inadequate support for professional formation are profound, impacting individual learners, patients, the profession, and society Bcl-2 inhibitor at large.\n\nAmong the many successful professional

formation projects nationally, two long-standing programs are described in modest detail to identify common elements that might guide future developments elsewhere. Key elements include experiential and reflective processes, use of personal narratives, integration of self and expertise, and candid discussion within a safe community of learners. Committing to professional formation within medical education will require FK228 cell line transformation of formal and informal curricula and will necessitate a rebalancing of attention and financial support within schools of medicine. Acad Med. 2010; 85: 310-317.”

cell receptor (BCR) signalling determines B cell differentiation and may potentially alter T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study we used two transgenic strains of BCR-deficient mice expressing Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP)2A in B cells, where either follicular and marginal zone differentiation (D(H)LMP2A mice) or B-1 cell development (V(H)LMP2A mice) were supported, and evaluated the effects of skewed B lymphocyte differentiation on lymphoid organogenesis and T cell responses in vivo. Compared to wild-type animals, both transgenic strains displayed alterations in the composition of lymphoid organs and in the dynamics of distinct immune cell subsets following immunization with the self-antigen PLP185-206. However, ex-vivo T cell proliferation to PLP185-206 peptide measured in immunized D(H)LMP2A and V(H)LMP2A mice was similar to that detected in immunized control mice. Further, clinical expression of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in both LMP2A strains was identical to that of wild-type mice.

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