Sodium and chloride Selleckchem BIIB057 concentrations increased in both groups during Ramadan. A chronic state of mild dehydration in both groups may explain the abovementioned increase of serum electrolytes
and renal function markers. Interestingly Ramadan fasting did not affect serum potassium concentrations in FED. Due to the dehydration and the elevations in serum sodium that occurred in FED, one might expect that increases in serum potassium concentrations would also be observed. However, a decrease in potassium intake may have offset any effects on serum potassium caused by dehydration . HDL-C increased during Ramadan in FAST and FED, at variance with our previous work . The rise in HDL-C was explained previously by change in body mass [2, 33] or fat intakes . However, in the present study, selleck inhibitor body mass did not change in either group while fat intakes increased only in FED. Thus, the rise of proportion of fat intakes during Ramadan can explain the increase in HDL-C in FED; although mechanisms by which fasting increases HDL-C in FAST remain unclear. Further investigation is needed to resolve this issue. Whether Ramadan fasting affects cellular damage was also investigated in the present study. Serum CK, ALT, AST, ALT, AP and γ-GT were measured to assess the effect of Ramadan
fasting on cellular damage biomarkers of bodybuilders. Ramadan fasting did not affect any of these variables and is in accordance with previous reports observing sedentary Vildagliptin persons . Nevertheless, to our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on these parameters in men who undertake resistance training during Ramadan. Serum C-reactive PF-01367338 supplier protein concentrations reflect the activity of cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes and are roughly proportional to the extent of tissue injury . C-reactive protein did not change in either group and this perhaps could be explained by the lack of effect of Ramadan
fasting on cellular damage biomarkers. Akin to previous studies in judokas , Ramadan had no impact on leukocyte count. Thus, in this context at least, continuation of resistance training whilst participation in Ramadan can be performed safely. It is worth noting that effect sizes of the parameters measured in the current study were consistent but rather low. This, and the small number of participants my have resulted in type II error for some of the parameters measured. With this in mind, replication of the study with more participants during Ramadan would be difficult because of recruitment, but may result in further significant findings. Nevertheless, we have previously observed metabolic changes with participation in Ramadan with similar numbers of subjects . Conclusion In conclusion, hypertrophic resistance training, unlike aerobic training, was not affected, at least in terms of body composition and markers of immune and inflammatory systems, when performed in a fed compared to a fasted state during Ramadan.