The authors effectively balance between these two endpoints of historical ignorance. The text conveys a great deal of information, but is quite accessible to a non-specialist reader interested in natural history and environmental change. The scholarship is thorough, balanced, and impeccable, and the writing is engaging. The text is nicely illustrated with diagrams, historic maps, and matched
historic and contemporary photographs. The matched photographs are particularly effective because juxtaposed on the same page, facilitating visual comparison of changes through time. The title refers to irreversible changes to the river through the Tucson Basin, mainly from urbanization and groundwater overdrafts. The authors conclude the book by noting that, although “the Santa Cruz River of old can be neither NLG919 restored nor revived” (p. 182), the river can be managed to minimize flood risk and maximize ecosystem services. This “will require both an acknowledgement ZD1839 ic50 of history and fresh perspectives on how to manage rivers and floodplains in urban areas of the Southwest” (p. 182). This
book provides a firm foundation for such a path forward. “
“Lagoons are widely distributed throughout the world ocean coasts. They constitute about 13 percent of the total world coastline (Barnes, 1980). They represent 5.3 percent of European coastlines (Razinkovas et al., 2008), with more than 600 lagoons in the Mediterranean area alone (Gaertner-Mazouni and De Wit, 2012). From geological and geomorphological viewpoints, coastal lagoons are ephemeral systems that can change in time (becoming estuaries or infilled; Davies, 1980). The nature of this change depends on the main factors controlling their evolution, such as mean sea level, hydrodynamic setting, river sediment supply and pre-existing topography. As observed by Duck and da Silva (2012), however, these coastal forms are seldom if ever allowed to evolve naturally. They are often modified by Racecadotril human intervention typically
to improve navigability or in attempts to maintain the environmental status quo. By controlling their depth and topography, humans have exploited them for many centuries for food production (fisheries, gathering of plants and algae, salt extraction, aquaculture, etc.) (Chapman, 2012). These modifications can transform radically the lagoon ecosystem. Human activities have also influenced the evolution of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) over the centuries (Gatto and Carbognin, 1981, Favero, 1985, Carbognin, 1992, Ravera, 2000, Brambati et al., 2003 and Tosi et al., 2009). Together with the historical city of Venice, the Venice Lagoon is a UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site. The first human remains in the lagoon area date back to the upper Paleolithic age (50,000–10,000 BC). The lithic remains found in Altino (Fig.