The basis of choline supplementation is that free choline can inc

The basis of choline supplementation is that free choline can increase the rate of acetylcholine synthesis [24, 25]. If acetylcholine levels become reduced during exhaustive exercise, supplementing with choline may maintain neurotransmitter concentrations and reduce fatigue and maintain performance. However, Spector and colleagues [26] reported that exercising until exhaustion at 70% of VO2max did not deplete choline. This is consistent Defactinib order with other studies reporting that choline concentrations may not be depleted during prolonged exercise [9, 10], but contrasts

with other studies showing reduced plasma choline concentrations during prolonged exercise [7, 27, 28]. Differences between these studies are difficult to explain considering that endurance exercise was the mode examined in these investigations, and subject populations were both recreationally and competitively-trained individuals. More consistent findings have been reported in choline’s ability to enhance cognition and

memory [5, 7, 29]. However, reports of enhanced memory or cognition following choline supplementation following a physical stress are limited. Only one study examined choline’s potential to enhance cognitive performance following a physical stress, and results did not prove to be efficacious [9]. To date, it appears that the benefit of choline supplementation is inconclusive. In JQEZ5 manufacturer contrast to the majority of research on choline ingestion, the Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease present study incorporated relatively short-duration, high intensity anaerobic exercise protocol to elicit fatigue. Furthermore, the supplement ingested contained smaller concentrations of choline than has been previously shown to be efficacious. Despite these differences, the combination of other dietary ingredients appeared to have provided a positive effect on performance and subjective feelings of fatigue and alertness. To maximize

the effectiveness of a supplement many sport nutrition companies combine several ingredients to provide a synergistic effect. The CRAM supplement combined choline (as α-glycerophosphocholine and choline bitartrate) with phosphatidylserine, carnitine, an energy matrix (caffeine and tyrosine) and vitamins. Phosphatidylserine has been previously shown to enhance recovery following high- and moderate-intensity exercise [1, 15, 20–22]. In addition, phosphatidylserine has been shown to enhance subjective feelings of energy, elation and confidence in healthy students subjected to stressful mental tasks [30] and in combination with carbohydrates to improve performance in golfers during induced stress [31]. Carnitine supplementation has been shown to enhance recovery following high intensity exercise [32, 33], as reflected by reduced markers of muscle damage and a greater anabolic response (elevation in IGF binding protein) to exercise recovery.

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