The reduced impact of the microbial environment allows the sowing

The reduced impact of the microbial environment allows the sowing of a larger quantity PF-4708671 cell line of a suspension and the isolation of anthrax organisms when they are present in very low concentrations in the soil. B. anthracis was isolated from 100% of artificially or naturally contaminated soil samples tested by the GABRI method; in contrast, 43% and 100% of naturally and artificially-contaminated samples, respectively, gave negative results when evaluated by the classic method. In the classic method usually some 100 μl of the suspension is sown as is and reading these plates can be very difficult. In

fact, in the absence of inhibiting actions, the microbial environment is essentially unchanged and the resulting thick carpet of bacteria makes the observation of any B. anthracis colonies very difficult, if not impossible. Previous experiments conducted in our laboratory on artificially contaminated soils have confirmed the reduction of the environmental contaminants up to 99% (unpublished data). Conclusions Our results indicate that, due to its ability to strongly reduce contaminants, the GABRI method may be especially suitable for environmental

investigations. Although the GABRI method makes it possible to isolate B. anthracis in environmental samples at very low levels of contamination, it should be overemphasized that the most important part of the entire process is the collecting phase. An essential aspect is the collaboration with the farmers because they can give useful, sometimes very accurate information on the actual places where the animals were slaughtered or buried. Moreover, find more for the pastures considered “infected”, the period of the year when to optimally collect the samples is very important. In regard to historic retrospective investigations we generally recommend that the soil sampling is done in the fall or winter as the pasture grass is short

and therefore one can make a better assessment of the orography of the investigated site. The weather conditions are important too. If the soil sampling is done immediately after rain, one has the possibility of taking samples of mud puddles that can MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit appear on an otherwise anonymous slope; these “puddles” can mark the site(s) of cattle graves whose exact location is long forgotten. This system was adopted in Tuscany (Italy) on pastures where years before there had been outbreaks of anthrax in farm cattle. It is necessary to analyze the sample three or four times before declaring it negative. References 1. WHO: Integrated control of neglected zoonotic diseases in Africa: applying the ‘One healt Concept’. Geneva: WHO Document Production Services; 2009. 2. Smith KL, DeVos V, GNS-1480 molecular weight Bryden H, Price LB, Hugh-Jones ME, Keim P: Bacillus anthracis diversity in Kruger National Park. J Clin Microbiol 2000,38(10):3780–3784.PubMed 3. Higgins CH: Anthrax. In Health of Animals Branch, Bulletin 23. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture; 1916:3–8. 4.

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