The region of the as-grown LBZA diffractogram corresponding to tw

The region of the as-grown LBZA diffractogram corresponding to two theta angles greater than 10° has been magnified 10 times. Figure 4 shows SEM images of LBZA NSs after annealing at 200°C, 400°C and 800°C. The 200°C image clearly shows interconnected NPs within the NSs and increasing temperature results in a size increase of the ZnO NPs, confirming the XRD data. The results of the size analysis are given in Table 1 and show that the crystallite size increases from 15.8 nm at 200°C to 104 nm at 1,000°C. In addition, sintering of the NPs is observed at 600°C (Figure 4) After annealing at 800°C, the sintering process intensifies.

The NSs keep their shape SCH 900776 chemical structure and their structures reasonably constant even after the 1,000°C anneal, similar to previous results for nanobelts [8]. The thickness of the NSs was not significantly altered by the annealing process. Figure 4 SEM images from annealed LBZA NSs at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C. Gefitinib nmr Scale bar 2 μm. Insets: detail of the nanocrystals, scale bar 200 nm. Table 1 SEM size measurement of the crystallite size for ZnO NSs evolved from LBZA

NSs annealed at different temperatures and their standard deviation Temperature (°C) 200 400 600 800 1,000 Average size (nm) 15.8 23.1 37.4 70.3 104 Standard deviation (nm) 3.2 9.34 14.66 22.6 38.5 Figure 5 shows the PL spectra acquired from ZnO NSs produced by annealing of LBZA NSs at various temperatures in air. The spectra show the narrow near band edge (NBE) peak at 380 nm and the broad visible band typical of ZnO, associated with deep level emission (DLE). The DLE band is centered around 630 nm for the NSs produced

at 400°C, resulting in a red orange emission, which is significantly red-shifted compared to the green/yellow emission typical of single crystal ZnO nanostructures such as nanorods [15] and tetrapods [16]. After annealing at 600°C and 800°C, the band broadens and the orange contribution of the visible band becomes more intense. Annealing at 1,000°C resulted in a predominantly green visible band. The DLE contribution is conventionally attributed to oxygen vacancies and other bulk lattice defects, despite evidence pointing to surface Repotrectinib defects for nanostructures [17, 18]. Our results show that the NBE to Clomifene DLE band ratios, calculated from the area under the PL spectra, are 0.161 at 400°C, 0.011 at 600°C, 0.009 at 800°C and 0.024 at 1,000°C. As the nanoparticle size within the NSs increases with temperature, the surface-to-volume ratio decreases, therefore indicating that the DLE is not caused by surface effects in our case. It would instead point towards a decrease in optical crystal quality at annealing temperatures higher than 400°C. Hsieh et al. [19] have reported a large DLE band for their thin ZnO films after annealing at 900°C in air compared to annealing in vacuum or pure oxygen. They attributed the DLE to increased oxygen vacancies. However, Djusiric et al.

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