We also thank Margarete Focke-Tejkl for the synthesis of addition

We also thank Margarete Focke-Tejkl for the synthesis of additional peptides and Theresa Kapral for providing blood from osteoarthritis patients. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial

conflict of interest. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They are made available as submitted by the authors. “
“Deficiencies in many of the complement proteins and their regulatory molecules have selleck compound been described and a variety of diseases, such as recurrent infections, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and renal diseases, may be linked to deficiency in the complement system. Screening for complement defects is therefore of great importance. In this study, we present novel improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the functional assessment of the three individual pathways of the complement system. The method is applicable at high serum concentrations and we demonstrate that it minimizes both false negative as well as false positive results. In particular, for the functional mannose-binding lectin activity it

represents an improvement on the existing assays. In this respect, the present assays represent novel improved diagnostic protocols for patients with suspected immunodeficiencies related to the complement system. The complement system is an important Carteolol HCl immune surveillance system in vertebrates, and elements of complement functions have also been demonstrated in several invertebrate species

Galunisertib ic50 [1]. The complement system in mammals is comprised of a large number of distinct plasma and cell-associated proteins. Activation of the complement system initiates a proteolytic cascade producing protein fragments that induce opsonization or direct killing of invading pathogens and altered host cells, and generates proinflammatory responses. Furthermore, complement is also an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses [2,3]. There are three main pathways through which the complement system can be activated. These pathways, called the classical pathway (CP), the alternative pathway (AP) and the lectin pathway (LP), depend on different components of the complement system for their initiation. They all converge to generate the same central effector molecule, C3b, through the activity of C3-activating enzyme complexes, the C3-convertases [4,5]. The CP is initiated as a result of the binding of C1q to antibody–antigen complexes or to structures such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or C-reactive protein (CRP), and involves a complex of C1q with the serine proteases C1r and C1s [C1q–(C1s)2–(C1r)2]. Binding of the C1-complex leads to activation of C1s, which cleaves factors C4 and C2 yielding the CP C3-convertase C4bC2a.

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