This tridiagonal system is solved by the Thomas algorithm, described by Carnahan et al. [27]. The solution of these equations is marched in time until the steady state is achieved. The steady-state

solution is assumed to have been LEE011 in vivo reached when the selleck chemicals llc absolute difference between the values of u and v as well as the average value of the Nusselt number and average value of skin friction coefficient at two consecutive time steps is less than 10−5. The grid sizes are taken as Δx = 0.05, Δy = 0.05, and Δt = 6.25 × 10−5. Using Fourier expansion method and following Abd El-Naby et al. [28], it can be shown that the finite difference scheme described above is unconditionally stable and consistent.

Therefore, the Lax-Richtmyer theorem implies convergence of the scheme [29]. We also checked the convergence of method using the computer code written in MATLAB to solve the above finite difference equations. GDC-0449 order The computer code was run for various grid spacing and various time intervals, and we found that if the grid spacing or the time spacing is further reduced, then there was no difference in the results. This shows that the scheme is convergent. To find the Nusselt number, skin friction coefficient, average Nusselt number, and average skin friction coefficient, the derivatives that appeared in Equations 18 to 21 are evaluated using the five point Newton’s derivative formulae, and the definite integrations are evaluated using Simpson’s integration formula. Validation of the formulation To check

the validity of formulation, we checked our results with Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase some of the experimental as well as theoretical work done before. For this, we chose to study natural convection of water in glass bead porous media in the same conditions as the previous works had done. The parameters of porous media and the fluid and the results of calculations are given in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 Nusselt number values for wall temperatures with permeability = 1.2 × 10 −9 and 1/Da = 3.375 × 10 6 Plate temperature T w (K) RaK Nu Nuavg Nu/RaK0.5 Nu/RaK0.5[[1, 2, 3-, 4]] 333 235.7341 6.6866 11.1941 0.4355 ≈0.44 353 353.6012 8.1777 13.1036 0.4349 0.44 373 471.4683 9.4101 14.5680 0.4344 0.44 393 589.3353 10.4920 15.7691 0.434 0.44 Diameter of glass bead (porous media) = 1 mm, length of plate = 0.1 m, permeability = 1.2 × 10−9, 1/Da = 3.375 × 106, T (ambient) = 293 K. Table 2 Nusselt number values for wall temperatures with permeability = 1.4683 × 10 −9 and 1/Da = 2.8605 × 10 6 Plate temperature T w (K) RaK Nu Nuavg Nu/RaK0.5 Nu/RaK0.5[[1, 2, 3-, 4]] 303 69.5325 3.6319 6.6569 0.4356 ≈0.44 313 139.0649 5.0880 8.959 0.4315 0.44 323 208.5974 6.2634 10.5969 0.4337 0.44 333 278.1298 7.2200 11.8779 0.4329 0.44 353 417.2597 8.8231 13.8479 0.4320 0.44 373 556.2597 10.1248 15.3437 0.43 0.44 Diameter of glass bead (porous media) = 1 mm, length of plate = 0.