CrossRefPubMed 54 Unhanand M, Maciver I, Ramilo O, Arencibia-Mir

CrossRefPubMed 54. Unhanand M, Maciver I, Ramilo O, Arencibia-Mireles O, Argyle JC, McCracken GH Jr, et al.: Pulmonary clearance of Moraxella catarrhalis in an animal model. J Infect Dis 1992, 165:644–650.PubMed 55. Cope LD, Lafontaine ER, Slaughter CA, Hasemann CA Jr, Aebi C, Henderson FW, et al.: Characterization of the Moraxella catarrhalis uspA1 and uspA2 genes and their encoded products. J Bacteriol 1999, 181:4026–4034.PubMed 56. Murphy TF: Studies of the outer membrane proteins of Branhamella catarrhalis. Am J Med 1990,88(5A):41S-45S.CrossRefPubMed 57. Luke NR, Russo TA, Luther N, Campagnari

AA: Use of an isogenic mutant constructed in Moraxella catarrhalis to identify a protective epitope of outer membrane B1 defined by monoclonal antibody 11C6. Infect Immun 1999, 67:681–687.PubMed 58. Soto-Hernandez JL, Holtsclaw-Berk S, Harvill LM, Berk SL: Phenotypic characteristics of Branhamella catarrhalis strains. J Clin Microbiol 1989, 27:903–908.PubMed 59. Meier PS, Troller R, Grivea IN, Syrogiannopoulos GA, Aebi C: The outer membrane proteins UspA1 and UspA2 of Moraxella catarrhalis are this website highly conserved in nasopharyngeal isolates from young children. Vaccine 2002, 20:1754–1760.CrossRefPubMed Authors’ contributions ASA, LL, and EJH conceived of the study and participated in its design. ASA and LL

designed, constructed, and characterized mutants. JLS designed and executed the competition OSI-906 chemical structure experiments, and performed additional mutant analyses. TCH and WL designed and executed RT-PCR experiments. CAB performed analysis of protein structure and provided bioinformatics. ASA and EJH drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background RVX-208 The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of Bacteria and Archaea are typically found in operons. Although many organisms have a single

rRNA operon the actual number is known to vary between 1 and 15 [1]. The operons themselves do not always exhibit the same sequence but instead different in a modest number of positions, typically less than 15 in the case of 16S rRNAs. Nevertheless, there are exceptions. For example, one of the three 16S rRNA genes in Halobacterium marismortui differs from the others in over 70 positions [2]. Such microheterogeneity has been studied in detail in a modest number of cases. For example, it has been recently shown is in Streptomyces coelicolor that all the operons are expressed and their RNAs incorporated into ribosomes but the relative expression level may vary over the growth cycle [3, 4]. In the case of H. marismortui, the aberrant operon responds to temperature differently [5]. Efforts to evaluate the extent of rRNA operon microheterogeneity likely should be handled cautiously. An examination of complete genome sequences revealed many examples where all the 16S rRNA genes in an organism with multiple rRNA operons are reported to be identical [6]. There certainly are cases where multiple rRNAs exist with the same sequence.

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