, Decades Mycologicae Italicae ad no. 94 (in sched.) (1879). (Montagnulaceae) 3-MA order Generic description Habitat terrestrial, saprobic. Ascomata rarely
small-, usually medium-sized, immersed usually under thin clypeus, scattered to gregarious, with flattened top and rounded pore-like ostiole, coriaceous. Peridium 2-layered, outer layer composed of reddish brown to dark brown small cells, inner layer of pale compressed cells. Hamathecium of dense, cellular pseudoparaphyses. Asci cylindrical to cylindro-clavate with short furcate pedicel. Ascospores muriform, ellipsoid to fusoid, reddish brown to dark brown. Anamorphs reported for the genus: Microdiplodia (Constantinescu 1993). Literature: Barr 1990a; Eriksson and Hawksworth 1991; Kodsueb et al. 2006a; Munk 1957; Zhang et al. 2009a. Type species Karstenula rhodostoma (Alb. & Schwein.) Speg., Decades Mycologicae Italicae no. 94. (1879). (Fig. 40) Fig. 40 Karstenula rhodostoma (from PH 01048835, type). a Line of ascomata on host surface (after remove the decaying cover). Note the wide ostiolar opening and light colored region around the ostiole. b Immersed ascoma under the decaying cover (see arrow). c, d Section of the peridium. The peridium comprises small thick-walled cells in the outer layer. The outside comprises defuse hyphae which is probably part of the subiculum. e Ascus with a short furcate pedicel. f Partial ascus showing arrangement of ascospores. g–i Released
ascospores. Note the transverse and rarely vertical septa. Scale bars: a, b = 0.5 mm,
c = 50 μm, d–f = 20 μm, g–i = 10 μm ≡ Sphaeria rhodostoma Alb. & Schwein., Consp. fung. (Leipzig): 43 (1805). Ascomata AZD1152-HQPA 250–430 μm high × 450–650 μm learn more diam., scattered or gregarious, immersed in the subiculum which sometimes sloths off, globose or subglobose, black, flattened top often white or reddish and sometimes slightly protruding out of the substrate surface, usually with a wide opening ostiole after removing the cover, coriaceous (Fig. 40a and b). Peridium 30–40 μm wide, comprising two cell types, outer region 1-layered, composed of relatively small heavily pigmented thick-walled compressed cells, cells 2–4 × 5–10 μm diam., cell wall 2–4 μm thick, inner layer cells larger and wall thinner, comprising cells of textura angularis, merging with pseudoparaphyses (Fig. 40c and d). Hamathecium of dense, long cellular pseudoparaphyses 2–3.5 μm broad, www.selleckchem.com/products/torin-1.html septate, branching or anastomosing not observed. Asci 150–210 × 12.5–15 μm (\( \barx = 182 \times 13.1\mu m \), n = 10), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, with a broad, furcate pedicel which is 12–35 μm long, and with an ocular chamber (to 4 μm wide × 3 μm high) (Fig. 40e and f). Ascospores 20–26 × 7.5–10 μm (\( \barx = 22.4 \times 8\mu m \), n = 10), obliquely uniseriate and partially overlapping, ellipsoid, reddish brown, with 3 transverse septa and a vertical septum in one or two central cells, constricted at the septa, verruculose (Fig. 40g, h and i).