dolorosa Lundholm & Moestrup, P. micropora Priisholm, Moestrup & Lundholm, and P. pungens (Grunow) Hasle var. pungens. However, one morphotype from Sarawak, while somewhat similar to P. caciantha, showed significant morphological distinction from this and any other of the currently described species. Most notably this morphotype possessed a characteristic pore arrangement in the poroids, with the fine pores in each perforation Opaganib cell line sector arranged in circles. Pair-wise sequence comparison of the LSU rDNA between this unidentified morphotype and P. caciantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle, revealed 2.7% genetic divergence. Phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the monophyly of the morphotype. Based
upon these supporting data it is here described as a new species, Pseudo-nitzschia circumpora sp. nov. A key to the six species of Pseudo-nitzschia from Malaysian Borneo is presented. Molecular signatures for all species were established based on structural comparisons of ITS2 rRNA transcripts. “
“Combined phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical approaches revealed that differences in defense-related responses among 17
species belonging to the Gracilariaceae were consistent with their evolutionary history. An oxidative burst response Proteasome inhibitor resulting from activation of NADPH oxidase was always observed in two of the subgenera of Gracilaria sensu lato (Gracilaria, Hydropuntia), but not in Gracilariopsis and in species related to Gracilaria chilensis find more (“chilensis” clade). On the other hand, all species examined except Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui and Gracilariopsis longissima
responded with up-regulation of agar oligosaccharide oxidase to an challenge with agar oligosaccharides. As indicated by pharmacological experiments conducted with Gracilaria chilensis and Gracilaria sp. “dura,” the up-regulation of agar oligosaccharide oxidase involved an NAD(P)H-dependent signaling pathway, but not kinase activity. By contrast, the activation of NADPH oxidase requires protein phosphorylation. Both responses are therefore independent, and the agar oligosaccharide-activated oxidative burst evolved after the capacity to oxidize agar oligosaccharide, probably providing additional defensive capacity to the most recently differentiated clades of Gracilariaceae. As demonstrated with Gracilaria gracilis, Gracilaria dura, and Gracilariopsis longissima, the different responses to agar oligosaccharides allow for a fast and nondestructive distinction among different clades of gracilarioids that are morphologically convergent. Based upon sequences of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene, this study suggests that at least some of the samples from NW America recorded as Gs. lemanaeiformis are probably Gs. chorda. Moreover, previous records of Gracilaria conferta from Israel are shown to be based upon misidentification of Gracilaria sp. “dura,” a species that belongs to the Hydropuntia subgenus.