In China, particularly in middle-western rural areas,1 gastric ca

In China, particularly in middle-western rural areas,1 gastric cancer still constitutes one of the most lethal malignancies in terms of mortality. It is widely known that infectious, dietary, environmental, and genetic factors are implicated in gastric

carcinogenesis: buy Selumetinib a long, complicated, and multi-stage process. Helicobacter pylori infection has been shown to be intimately related to an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. Rivetingly, almost half of the general population is infected with H. pylori. Less than 1% of infected individuals, however, ultimately develop gastric cancer,2 insinuating that host genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer should be paid equal attention to. The interleukin (IL)-1 gene cluster on chromosome 2q contains three related genes within a 430 kb region, IL-1A, IL-1B, and IL-1RN, which encode the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β, as well as the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ra, respectively.3 IL-1β, upregulated in the gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori, plays a crucial this website role in initiating and amplifying the inflammatory response to H. pylori infection and is simultaneously a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion.4,5 With respect to IL-1 ra, it competitively binds IL-1β receptors, thus modulating the presumptively deleterious effects of IL-1β.

Three biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the IL-1B gene at positions −511, −31, and +3954 base pairs (bp) from the transcriptional start site have been most commonly described for potential association with gastric cancer: both CT base transitions at positions −511 and +3954, and a TC base transition at position −31.5 The SNP at −31 and −511 are in near-complete linkage disequilibrium.6 The IL-RN gene has a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of 86 bp polymorphism in intron2, generating a short allele with two repeats (IL-1RN*2) and long alleles with three to six repeats (IL-1RN L), respectively.7 In 2000,

El-Omar et al. published the first study showing an association between IL1B−511 and −31 polymorphisms and an increased risk learn more of developing gastric cancer.4 Ever since then, scores of researchers have consecutively reported such cytokine gene associations with gastric cancer risk in various populations, but with mixed, or even conflicting results.8–45 In 2006, three meta-analysis papers on the same topic were published but still with inconclusive results.46–48 Camargo et al. found positive associations of IL1B–511T and IL1RN*2 with gastric cancer susceptibility in Caucasians but not in Asians. For IL1B–511T, the association in Caucasians was stronger when intestinal subtype or non-cardiac gastric cancers were stratified.46 Wang et al. also found positive associations of IL-1B –511 and IL-1RN polymorphisms with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer,48 whereas Kamangar et al. found no overall associations between IL-1B or IL-1RN polymorphisms and predisposition to gastric cancer.

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