Experimental urethral infection of male volunteers has been used to define the innate and humoral responses to infection and reinfection and the importance of selected virulence factors , ,  and . This well-characterized model currently is being conducted at http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Erlotinib-Hydrochloride.html the University of North Carolina 
and provides a system for early testing of vaccine candidates. The human challenge model can only assess immunoprotection against early stages of male urethral infection and might not identify candidates that would be effective in women or prevent complicated infections or DGI. Chimpanzees are less subject to Gc host restrictions than other laboratory animals. Male chimpanzees develop Gc urethritis that is similar to that
observed in humans, and natural transmission of gonorrhea from a male chimpanzee to two females was documented. Immunization of chimpanzees with a whole cell vaccine resulted in increased resistance to infection (reviewed in ). Chimpanzees are no longer available for gonorrhea research, but the insights gained from these experiments should not be ignored. Female mice are transiently susceptible to Gc during proestrus , and administration of 17β-estradiol and antibiotics prolongs colonization with ascending STK38 infection occurring Selleck Quisinostat in 17–20% of mice. The innate response in mice is similar to that reported for humans; infection of BALB/c mice induces proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, TNFα, KC, and MIP-2) and a vaginal PMN influx. Gc is readily found within mouse PMNs and infection persists during periods of inflammation. Specific serum and vaginal antibodies are low after infection
and mice can be reinfected with the same strain. This model has been useful for studying Gc factors that facilitate evasion of innate defenses and for examining the immune modulation associated with Gc infection . The mouse model has also been used for vaccine studies  (Gulati et al., 2012 IPNC, Abstract #0118) and was recently standardized in challenge-aged mice for vaccine testing (D.S. Simon, et al., submitted). However, numerous host restrictions severely limit the capacity of this model to mimic human gonorrhea, some of which might affect the predictive power of this model for human vaccines. These restrictions include human-specific receptors for adherence and invasion, iron-binding glycoproteins, soluble regulators of the complement cascade (fH, C4BP), and IgA1, the substrate of gonococcal IgA1 protease, whose role in evasion of IgA1 is uncertain.