6b) Both MAL12 (G12P[6], long RNA pattern) and MAL88 (G12P[6], s

6b). Both MAL12 (G12P[6], long RNA pattern) and MAL88 (G12P[6], short RNA pattern) belonged to lineage I, sublineage 1a. Unlike the P[8] VP4 gene, all P[6] VP4 genes detected in Malawi belonged to the same sublineage within the same lineage, suggesting much smaller sequence diversity than within the P[8] VP4 gene. In the P[4] VP4 phylogenetic tree there were 3 lineages, and MAL81 (G8P[4]) belonged to lineage II (Fig. 6c). This P[4] VP4 sequence was very closely related to G8P[4] strains detected previously in Kenya,

Brazil and Malawi. While there are more than 10 I types in the VP6 genes, phylogenetic learn more analysis clearly clustered three I1 sequences from MAL12 (G12P[6]), MAL23 (G1P[8]) and MAL82 (G9P[8]) together into the same lineage within the I1 genotype but distinct from the lineage to which RIX4414 belonged (Fig. 7). Similarly, two I2 sequences from MAL81 (G8P[4]) and MAL88 (G12P[6], short RNA pattern) clearly clustered into the same lineage within I2. While there are more than 11 E types in the NSP4 genes, phylogenetic analysis clearly clustered three selleck chemicals llc E1 sequences from MAL12 (G12P[6]), MAL23 (G1P[8]) and MAL82 (G9P[8]) with the E1 genotype to which RIX4414 belonged (Fig. 8). Similarly, two E2 sequences from MAL81 (G8P[4]) and MAL88 (G12P[6], short RNA pattern) were clearly clustered within the

E2 genotype. The diversity of the rotavirus genome, particularly the variety of G and P genotype combinations, is one of several factors that have been proposed to be a theoretical obstacle to the successful control of rotavirus disease by rotavirus vaccines. Such genetic diversity is recognised to be generally greater in developing countries including African countries than in industrialized countries [10], [11] and [31]. Malawi, which has historically harboured a rich diversity of circulating rotaviruses [15] and [16] was selected as a site for a pivotal clinical trial of a human, monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™

[8]. In the trial in Malawi, the diversity of circulating rotavirus strains was greater [8] than in any previously published rotavirus vaccine trial, in Ketanserin which the globally most common G1P[8] strain has predominated [32]. Thus, in Malawi, only 13% of the rotavirus strains were of genotype G1P[8], the strain on which Rotarix™ is based and the most common strain among children globally [10] and [11]. The observed lower vaccine efficacy in Malawi (49.5% against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis) was not attributed by the authors to this striking strain diversity of G and P genotypes, on the grounds that the efficacy of Rotarix™ against severe gastroenteritis caused by G1 and non-G1 rotaviruses was similar [8].

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