“Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear rec

“Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is the primary bile acid receptor. We previously showed that FXR was required for the promotion of liver regeneration/repair after physical resection or liver injury. However, the mechanism by which FXR promotes liver regeneration/repair is still unclear. Here we show that both hepatic-FXR and intestine-FXR contributed to promote liver regeneration/repair after either 70% partial hepatectomy or Navitoclax concentration carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Hepatic FXR, but not intestine FXR, is required for the induction of Foxm1b gene expression in liver during liver

regeneration/repair. In contrast, intestine FXR is activated to induce FGF15 expression in intestine after liver damage. Ectopic expression of FGF15 was able to rescue the defective liver regeneration/repair in intestine-specific FXR null mice. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that, in addition to the cell-autonomous effect of hepatic FXR, the endocrine

FGF15 pathway activated by FXR in intestine also participates in the promotion of liver CH5183284 supplier regeneration/repair. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:2336-2343)”
“Background: This study explored whether periodontal health/disease affects psychosocial outcomes in smiling patterns of particular subjects and their smile-related quality of life.\n\nMethods: We collected data from 21 regularly scheduled patients in a periodontal graduate student clinic (four males and 17 females; average age: 50.38 years; age range: 24 to 82 years). The subjects were videotaped while watching a funny television (TV) program. Two independent raters rated each videotape at 31 predetermined time points to assess four aspects of the objective smiling patterns of the subjects. In addition, the subjects responded to a questionnaire to assess their smile-related quality of life. Provider ratings and chart review data were used to assess the clinically assessed oral health status selleck screening library of the subjects.\n\nResults: The smile-related quality of life of the subjects correlated significantly with indicators of the periodontal health

of the subjects, such as the number of mobile teeth (r = 0.681; P= 0.000), missing teeth (r = 0.784; P = 0.001), and gingival recession in the esthetic zone (r = 0.718; P = 0.001). Periodontal health and smiling patterns also were correlated. The more teeth with probing depths between 4 and 6 mm the subjects had, the less widely they opened their mouths when they smiled (r = -0.468; P = 0.032); the more hypermobile teeth the subjects had, the less open their smiles were (r = -0.442; P= 0.045) and the more likely they were to cover their mouths when they smiled (r = 0.517; P = 0.017); and the more sites of gingival recession in the esthetic zone the subjects had, the fewer teeth they showed when they smiled (r = -0.491; P = 0.028).

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