Flying with large ears is also potentially energetically expensive, particularly at high flight speeds. Large ears, therefore, are only likely to be affordable for slow foraging gleaning bat species. Bats with faster foraging flight styles tend to have smaller ears, possibly to cut the overall drag produced and reduce the power required for flight. Variations in the size of ears and tail membranes appear to be driven primarily by foraging strategy and not by body size, because the find more scaling relationships found are either weak or not significant. Ear size in bats may be a result of a trade-off between acoustic and aerodynamic performance.”
“Background:Natural killer (NK)
cell phenotype and function have recently gained much attention as playing crucial roles in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We investigated NK cell function, as measured by ADCC, in HIV-1-positive individuals before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation.Method:The ability of antibodies and NK cells to mediate ADCC was investigated separately and in combination VE-821 in vitro in an autologous model. The NK cell subset distribution and NK cell phenotype (ie, expression of maturation and activation markers within NK cell subsets) were analyzed.Results:The ability of NK cells to mediate ADCC was significantly increased after only 6 months of HAART and
was not explained by a normalization of NK cell subsets (CD56(dim) CD16(pos) and CD56(neg) Selleck 17-AAG CD16(pos) NK cells) but rather by normalization in the frequency of NK cells
expressing CCR7 and CD27. For individuals with no increase in ADCC after 6 months of HAART, the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 was downregulated. The ability of antibodies to mediate ADCC alone and in combination in an autologous model was not improved.Conclusions:HAART improves the ability of NK cells to mediate ADCC after 6 months. This improvement does not correlate with general immune restoration, as measured by CD4(+) T-cell counts, but rather to a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing CCR7 and CD27.”
“Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by bronchoconstriction after ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The Ca2+ concentration in bronchial epithelial cells is an important factor for bronchoconstriction. Human annexin A4 (ANXA4) is predominantly expressed in the secretory epithelia in the lung, stomach, intestine, and kidney. Furthermore, translocation and induction of ANXA4 have been observed in human Ca2+-depleted neutrophils. To investigate the association between annexin A4 polymorphisms and the risk of AERD, we have genotyped 21 variants from 102 AERD subjects and 429 aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) controls. Logistic analyses controlling for sex, smoking status, and atopy as covariates were performed to estimate the association between the annexin A4 polymorphisms and AERD.