Glycolipids also function as acceptors of the glycerol-phosphate polymer during LTA synthesis, although the exact mechanism underlying this process is still under investigation . If the processive glycosyltransferase YpfP is inactivated in Staphylococcus aureus, DAG instead selleck products of DGlcDAG is utilized as a building block in LTA synthesis, suggesting that glycolipids are not essential acceptors of the LTA polymer [12, 13]. A second glycosyltransferase (EF 2890) is located immediately downstream of bgsA. To our knowledge, the
function of this gene locus of E. faecalis or its homologues in streptococci is still unknown. In the current study, we report the construction of a deletion mutant of EF_2890 that we designated bgsB and studied the role of glycolipid metabolism in LTA biosynthesis and bacterial physiology. Results Construction of a deletion mutant buy Alpelisib of the glycosyltransferase bgsB Immediately downstream from bgsA, we identified a putative 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase (TIGR number EF2890) by basic local alignment search tool (BLASTP) search (Figure 1). This glycosyl-transferase shows homology to YP_001620482.1 of Acholeplasma laidlawii (identity 34%, similarity
55%)  and to Lmo2555 of CRT0066101 Listeria monocytogenes (identity 23%, similarity 41%) . We designated this gene bgsB. To study the requirement of bgsB for glycolipid production, LTA synthesis, and bacterial physiology, we constructed a deletion mutant by targeted mutagenesis using the strategy previously applied for the bgsA deletion mutant. Unmarked deletions were created by allelic Molecular motor exchange, and all gene deletions were confirmed by PCR. In the resulting mutant, an internal fragment of 790 bp was deleted from the bgsB gene (Figure 1). Single gene reconstitution of bgsB in E. faecalis 12030ΔbgsB completely restored the wild-type phenotype, including the glycolipid expression profile in cell membrane
extracts (Figure 2) and biofilm formation (Figure 3). Figure 1 Biosynthesis of glycolipids in E. faecalis. A Genetic organization of the bgs-locus in E. faecalis. The numbers refer to the primers described in Table 2. bgsB has a length of 1224 bp. A putative transcriptional terminator is found 10 bases downstream of bgsB. B Putative biosynthetic pathway of glycolipid synthesis in E. faecalis. C Structure of E. faecalis glycolipids. The position of 18:1 and 16:0 fatty acids has not been determined . Figure 2 Thin-layer chromatography of cell-membrane total lipid extracts of E. faecalis strains. Bacterial cells were grown overnight, disintegrated, and stirred with butanol. Membrane lipids were extracted from butanol by phase partition according to Bligh and Dyer.