) Images were analyzed with Fingerprinting II Informatix

). Images were analyzed with Fingerprinting II Informatix software (Version 3.0, Bio-Rad). Band matching and cluster analysis was performed using an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and the Dice coefficient with 1% optimization and tolerance levels. Based on the dendrogram obtained from the cluster analysis, letters were assigned

to designate fla types and numbers were assigned to designate PFGE types. Isolates with > 90% similarity were assigned to the same fla type or PFGE type. Composite cluster analysis including fla typing, PFGE, and antimicrobial resistance testing Pevonedistat datasheet data was performed using the Fingerprinting II Informatix software. The composite dendrogram was determined by UPGMA using the average from

the experiment as a coefficient for similarity and correction for internal weights. Statistical analysis The χ2 test was used to analyze the significance of the difference between ciprofloxacin and erythromycin resistance rates, including C. jejuni compared to C. coli in each plant, and pre chill compared to post chill in plant A. An α of 0.01 was used for statistical significance. The discriminatory ability of fla typing, PFGE, antimicrobial resistance profiling, and composite analysis was calculated using the numerical index of discrimination (D) according to the method of Hunter and Gaston [60]. The discriminatory index represents the probability that two unrelated strains sampled from the test population will be placed into different TGF-beta assay typing groups [60]. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the Staurosporine U.S. RXDX-101 chemical structure Food and Drug Administration for financial and technical assistance. We also thank Curt Doetkott, North Dakota State University (NDSU), for statistical consultation and Dr. Mohamed Fakhr, University of Tulsa, for assistance with data analysis and manuscript review. References 1. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV: Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999, 5:607–625.CrossRefPubMed 2. Butzler JP:Campylobacter , from

obscurity to celebrity. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004, 10:868–876.CrossRefPubMed 3. Allos BM:Campylobacter jejuni infections: update on emerging issues and trends. Clin Infect Dis 2001, 32:1201–1206.CrossRefPubMed 4. Jacobs-Reitsma W:Campylobacter in the food supply. Campylobacter American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C 2 Edition (Edited by: Nachamkin I, Blaser MJ). 2000, 467–481. 5. Cox NA, Stern NJ, Craven SE, Berrang ME, Musgrove MT: Prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in the cecal droppings of turkeys during production. J Appl Poult Res 2000, 9:542–545. 6. Luangtongkum T, Morishita TY, Ison AJ, Huang S, McDermott PF, Zhang Q: Effect of conventional and organic production practices on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in poultry.

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