In 57 patients antibiotic therapy was guided by daily PCT and cli

In 57 patients antibiotic therapy was guided by daily PCT and clinical assessment and adjusted accordingly. The control group comprised 53 patients with a standardized duration of antibiotic therapy over eight days. In the PCT group the duration of antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter than in the control group without negative effects on clinical outcome. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy of BIRB 796 intra-abdominal infections may result in poor patient outcomes. In order

to value the association between inappropriate antibiotic therapy and clinical outcomes for complicated community-acquired intra-abdominal infections Tellado et al. [149] reviewed patient records from October 1998 to August 2002 in 24 hospitals in Spain. They classified initial empiric therapy as appropriate if all isolates were sensitive to at least Selleckchem Volasertib 1 of the antibiotics administered. Inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy was associated with a significantly higher rate of unsuccessful outcomes including death, re-operation, re-hospitalization or additional parental antibiotic therapies. In 2008 Edelsberg et al. [150] explored the economic consequences of failure of empiric therapy in antibiotic therapy in hospitalized adults with complicated intra-abdominal

infection. Using a large U.S. multi-institutional database, they identified all hospitalized adults admitted between April 2003 and March 2004 with cIAI, who had CBL-0137 undergone laparotomy, laparoscopy or percutaneous drainage and had received intravenous antibiotics. Antibiotic failure was

considered on the basis of the need for reoperation or receipt of other antibiotics postoperatively. Among 6,056 patients who met the study entrance criteria, 22.4% failed initial antibiotic therapy. Failure of initial Cyclooxygenase (COX) intravenous antibiotics in hospitalized adults with cIAIs was associated with longer hospitalization, higher hospital charges, and higher mortality rate. De escalation approach in critically ill patients The rise in antibiotic resistance in the ICU poses serious problems for the management of critically ill patients. The choice of empiric antibiotic therapy can have a significant impact on patient outcome when resistant pathogens may be involved. Empiric antimicrobial therapy for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock may be ineffective if the responsible organism is not susceptible to available antibiotics. Therefore, attention has been focused on the need for strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in the ICU. In critically ill patients a de escalation approach may be recommended. For years antibiotic therapy has been started with a basic agent and only once microbiological culture results and susceptibility tests were available, more potent compounds were used. The traditional approach, however, may no longer be appropriate for critically ill patients in the current era of increasing antibiotic resistance.

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