They act as prime movers of the glenohumeral joint rotating it internally and selleck compound externally (Basmajian and DeLuca 1985, Jenp et al 1996, Kelly et al 1996). They also stabilise the glenohumeral joint by providing a medial (Inman et al 1944, Sharkey et al 1994), inferior (Hurschler et al 2000, Inman et al 1944, Sharkey and Marder 1995), anterior, and posterior force (Kronberg et al
1990) on the humeral head keeping it central in the glenoid fossa during shoulder joint movement. Adduction exercises are commonly recommended in the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff dysfunction (Allingham 1995, Allingham 2000, Morrison et al 1997, Reinold et al 2004). This is based on clinical observation, which suggests that adduction activates and strengthens the rotator cuff (Allingham 1995, Allingham 2000, Morrison et al 1997), increasing the depressive role of the rotator cuff on the head of the humerus without activating the superior translation forces of deltoid (Morrison et al 1997, Reinold et al 2004).
Additionally, when adduction is combined with external rotation it is thought to increase the contraction of the posterior cuff click here (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor) in their rotational role, providing greater potential for strengthening this portion of the rotator cuff (Wilk et al 2002). Adduction with external rotation also reduces activity in middle deltoid
(Bitter et al 2007). Data from magnetic resonance imaging during active shoulder adduction indicate that muscle activity leads to a significant increase in the size of the subacromial space due to inferior translation of the humeral head (Graichen et al 2005, Hinterwimmer et al 2003). It is not known, however, whether this inferior humeral head translation is due to rotator cuff muscle activity because rotator cuff activity during adduction has not been directly measured using electromyography. Force studies indicate that latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and teres major have much larger depressive moment arms during adduction than the rotator cuff muscles (Hughes Rolziracetam and An 1996, Kuechle et al 1997). Furthermore, we are unaware of any clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of isolated adduction exercises in the treatment of rotator cuff dysfunction. Therefore, the validity of the use of adduction exercises to diagnose and treat rotator cuff dysfunction remains unknown. Thus the aim of this study was to electromyographically compare activity in the rotator cuff and other shoulder muscles during adduction. The specific questions addressed in this study were: 1.