Zuanazzi et al 7 reported that the most prevalent bacteria in th

Zuanazzi et al. 7 reported that the most prevalent bacteria in the saliva of hospitalized individuals were Staphylococcus spp. (85.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (83.8%), and Acinetobacter

spp. (53.3%). The results of another study suggested a possible peroral route for staphylococci, as the provision of microorganisms from the nasal cavity was shown. 8 Staphylococcus species are amongst the most frequent causes of bacteremia in mechanically ventilated patients.9 Further work in this area PI3K inhibitors ic50 may lead to benefits such as improved decolonization regimens for eradication of MRSA and acknowledgement of the mouth as a source of bacteremia-causing staphylococci.10 Microorganisms of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families have been thoroughly investigated by the medical field

and are known for their pathogenicity in humans; however, these bacteria have not been considered pathogenic in the oral cavity. Despite this, the presence of these bacteria in the oral cavity can serve as a reservoir, and can severely compromise the lives of immunocompromised individuals. 11, 12, 13 and 14 Some studies have reported an association between Enterobacteriaceae and oral ulcerations in HIV-positive patients, but this association may not check details necessarily be causal, as enterobacteria may be secondary invaders. 15 and 16 Local and systemic factors appear to be correlated with increased oral prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and/or Pseudomonas. However, the percentage of oral isolates containing these species differs amongst reports from different groups and remains controversial. 3, 14, 17 and 18

Despite the importance of this subject, few studies of Enterobacteriaceae and/or Pseudomonas in the oral cavities of HIV-positive patients have been performed in Brazil. Most of the published studies have focused on Candida spp. Because oral reservoirs of potential pathogens such as enterobacteria and staphylococci may also cause local or systemic infections and compromise the lives of immunosuppressed individuals, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae in the oral cavities almost of HIV-positive patients. This study was approved by the Local Ethics Committee (protocol number 012-PH/CEP) and was undertaken with the informed written consent of each subject. Forty-five individuals (23 female and 22 male), aged 22–66 years, HIV-positive as diagnosed by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot, undergoing treatment at the Day Hospital of Taubaté Medical School or Medical Specialties Center (São Paulo State; ARE), and having undergone anti-retroviral therapy for at least 1 year were included in the study. Of the total, 43% of the patients were undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and the remaining patients were treated only with a protease inhibitor.

0035 μmol/l blood or from 0 to 0 4 μmol/l blood (rats), blood of

0035 μmol/l blood or from 0 to 0.4 μmol/l blood (rats), blood of naïve animals (about 30 mice or 10 rats) was pooled. Blood samples were treated as described under Section 2.3 with the difference that between 5 and 20 μl of an acetonic solution

of a predefined concentration of racemic DEB was added into the samples before the preparation of plasma. In total, four calibration curves were constructed for mice and eight calibration curves for rats. Linear regression analyses revealed coefficients of determination (R2) of between 0.992 and 0.999. The limits of detection of DEB (3 times the background selleck inhibitor noise) were 1 nmol/l (mouse blood) and 0.3 nmol/l (rat blood). Fig. 2 shows (±)-DEB and meso-DEB in the blood of BD exposed mice ( Fig. 2A and a) and rats ( Fig.

2B and b). All measured data are given in Fig. 2A and B, excerpts demonstrating DEB concentrations at low BD exposure concentrations of between 0 and 21 ppm are given in Fig. 2a and b. Large standard errors are seen in rats. The individual rat data may reflect the fact that DEB Stem Cell Compound Library is only a minor second-order BD metabolite in the rat liver ( Filser et al., 2010). In mice, the figure shows only small differences in the means of two groups of 6 animals each, both of which were exposed identically. In non-exposed control animals of both species, there was no DEB background. Also no DEB-related background was found by Georgieva et al. (2010) who investigated DEB-characteristic adducts at the N-terminal valine of hemoglobin (N,N-(2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-butadiyl)-valine)

in mice and rats repeatedly exposed over 2 weeks to BD concentrations of between 0 and 625 ppm. In mice, measured (±)-DEB blood concentrations seem to reach a plateau concentration of about 1.74 μmol/l at 600 ppm BD. In rat blood, mean concentrations of (±)-DEB amount to not more than 0.1 μmol/l. Of this concentration, 70% is reached at 100 ppm BD. The curves, also shown in the figure, were fitted to the data by means of Prism 5 for Mac OS X (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, California) using one-phase exponential association functions. These functions were preferred to Michaelis–Menten functions because they provided higher correlation coefficients. The (±)-DEB blood concentrations in mice, calculated by means of the one-phase exponential association function, increased L-gulonolactone oxidase from 5.4 nmol/l at 1 ppm BD to 1860 nmol/l at 1250 ppm BD. In rats, they increased from 1.2 nmol/l at 1 ppm BD to 92 nmol/l at 200 ppm BD. At this exposure concentration, 91% of the calculated DEB plateau concentration in rat blood was reached. In both species, the blood concentrations of the (±) form are much higher than those of the meso form. The ratio of (±)- to meso-DEB is similar in mice and rats and does not change very much in the whole exposure range. It is between 21 and 32 in mouse blood and between 17 and 21 in rat blood. Goggin et al.

Our data from the southern Baltic Sea study area exhibit consider

Our data from the southern Baltic Sea study area exhibit considerable variability in all the particle concentrations measured. In the case of the basic suspended particulate matter characteristic – its mass concentration (SPM) – the corresponding coefficient of variation (CV, defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the average value and expressed as a percentage) is more than

90%. There is a > 40-fold variability between the measured maximum and minimum values (see Table 1). In the case of other biogeochemical quantities like concentrations of POC and POM, which characterize the organic fraction of suspended matter, the recorded variability is of the same order (with CV reaching > 90% in both cases, Selleckchem SB203580 and with > 50-fold and > 30-fold variability between the extremes respectively). In the case of the phytoplankton pigment concentrations found within the suspended matter the variability is even greater. The concentration of the primary pigment, chlorophyll a (Chl a), has a CV of almost 130% and there is a > 190-fold variability between the maximum and minimum values; the variability in the overall concentration of all accessory pigments is of the same Crizotinib research buy order of magnitude. Although most of the particle populations encountered were composed primarily of organic matter, the different particle

concentration ratios suggest that particle composition varied significantly. For example, the average POM/SPM ratio is about 0.8 but the corresponding CV is 22% (see the data in Table 1). In the case of the two other composition ratios – POC/SPM (av. = ca 0.25) and Chl a/SPM (av. = ca 3.5 × 10−3) – the corresponding CVs are even greater (41% and 81% respectively). As these three composition ratios can provide insight into the variable proportions between the organic and inorganic fractions in the total suspended matter, there are two other ratios worth mentioning, which suggest that the composition of the organic fraction of suspended matter is itself subject to significant variability. The CV of the Chl a/POC

ratio (av. = 1.3 × 10−2) is 74%, while for the ratio of total accessory pigments to Verteporfin clinical trial Chl a it is 29%. The relations between the different biogeochemical measures characterizing suspended matter are illustrated graphically in Figure 2. This also shows (with the aid of the colour coded data points – see Figure caption for details) that, on average, lower suspended matter concentrations were typical of the open southern Baltic waters rather than of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The high variability in different concentration measures of particulate matter in southern Baltic waters had to yield a high variability in IOPs. Relationships between particle concentrations and optical properties will be described in detail below, but at this point it is appropriate to emphasize the general variability ranges in particle IOPs. The absorption coefficient of particles at 440 nm varied between < 0.

, 2009) In cod the exposure conditions indicated by biliary PAH

, 2009). In cod the exposure conditions indicated by biliary PAH metabolites have been linked to cytochrome P450 1A protein (CYP1A) responses and formation of DNA adducts see more ( Aas et al., 2000a, Aas et al., 2001, Sanni et al., 2005 and Skadsheim et al., 2009). Other parameters analyzed in cod include

biliary AP metabolites, vitellogenin, zona radiata protein, glutathione S-transferase and gill histopathology. The surveys have mostly detected exposure to PAH and AP from PW and biomarker responses no further than 0.5–1 km from the discharge points, but in one survey effects out to 1.6 km were detected ( Sundt et al., 2008). Corresponding biliary PAH metabolites and biomarker responses in wild fish caught within 100 m from three Australian offshore platforms where the PW comes from a heavy crude oil also suggest that the effects were local Crizotinib order as no effects were detected at 5 km distance ( Gagnon, 2011). There is, however, a concern

that current methods are not sensitive enough to reveal subtle effects further out. Also, few of the biomarker endpoints look beyond the compensatory capacity of the organisms, and the significance of these responses for the fitness and survival of the organisms is still debated. Extrapolation from short-term biomarker effects in individual organisms to long term effects on populations and communities is inherently difficult ( Forbes et al., 2006), and the conclusion that impacts are largely local is still unverified ( Wells, 2005). Some fish species seem to be attracted to production platforms. Jørgensen et al. (2002) showed that about half the cod tagged near an NS platform remained there

or around neighboring platforms. Gill net catches have been PTK6 bigger near platforms than further away (Løkkeborg et al., 2002). Monitoring studies on free living fish in the NS have shown interesting results with respect to effects on biomarkers. Samples collected in 2002 from two areas with extensive oil and gas production showed induction on biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity in natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) ( Balk et al., 2011 and Grøsvik et al., 2010). Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA-adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Atlantic cod showed similar, but less pronounced responses. Repeated monitoring in 2005, 2008 and 2011 confirmed this pattern, although with weaker genotoxic signals in haddock from the northern NS (Tampen area). It is still not clear whether the effects are caused by PW contaminants, contaminated drill cuttings, smaller oil spills, or a combination of these sources ( Hylland et al., 2006). These findings as well as results from caging experiments have shown that individual fish can be affected sublethally in several ways by PW discharges ( Brooks et al., 2011b).

However, the mechanism by which mTORC2 is activated upon interact

However, the mechanism by which mTORC2 is activated upon interaction with ribosomes still needs to be clarified. Glutaminolysis provides an interesting mTOR-related link between metabolism and cancer. Pexidartinib Highly proliferating cancer cells are often glutamine-addicted, and tumor growth correlates with the activity of glutaminase (GLS), the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis [123 and 124]. Conversely, inhibition of GLS blocks cancer development and slows growth in certain gliomas [125 and 126]. Duran et al. [ 63••] recently demonstrated that glutaminolysis also activates mTORC1, thereby

promoting cell growth and inhibiting autophagy [ 63••]. These findings suggest that glutaminolysis promotes cancer, at least partly, via mTORC1 activation. Targeting both glutaminolysis and mTORC1 may be a strategy for treatment of glutamine-addicted tumors. This review emphasizes the importance of mTOR signaling in aging, whole body metabolism, and cancer. Tissue-specific mTORC1 and mTORC2 deletions have revealed that each of the two complexes has different

roles in different organs with regard to whole body glucose and lipid homeostasis. For example impaired mTORC2 signaling in the Stem Cell Compound Library order liver and muscle leads to a diabetic phenotype whereas mTORC2 deletion in adipose tissue does not cause diabetes. Similarly, deletion of mTORC1 signaling in muscle but not in adipose tissue or liver leads to glucose intolerance. Thus, the development of treatments that target mTOR signaling to delay aging or to treat metabolic

disorders and cancer will require understanding tissue-specific mTOR signaling. Even though rapamycin has been shown to increase lifespan and to protect against cancer, side effects such as immunosuppression or diabetes may limit rapamycin’s usefulness as a potential longevity drug. Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted Cell press as: • of special interest We acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swiss Cancer League, the Louis–Jeantet Foundation, the SFD-ALFEDIAM (MC), the Werner Siemens Foundation (VA) and the Canton of Basel. “
“Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2013, 23:72–74 Available online 28th Feb 2013 0959-437X/$ – see front matter, © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2013.01.006 In animals, early stages of embryo development are associated with extensive epigenetic reprogramming to coordinate zygotic genome activation (ZGA) [2]. ZGA is typically delayed, although to a varying extent depending on the species, with a gradual loss of the maternal dominance and increase of zygotic influence [1 and 2].

So he

enrolled for a Ph D at Harvard University, under t

So he

enrolled for a Ph.D. at Harvard University, under the supervision of the famous insect endocrinologist, Carroll Williams, graduating in 1957. The lab pioneered studies of metamorphosis and its control by ecdysone and juvenile hormone, particularly in Lepidoptera. His first paper in 1953, on the cyanide sensitivity of the heartbeat in the Cecropia silkmoth (Harvey and Williams, 1953), introduced two themes for the Romidepsin molecular weight rest of his career – energetics and caterpillars. Bill would continue publishing in the area of energetics and diapause until the early sixties, when he took a fellowship to Copenhagen. In Karl Zerahn’s lab, he worked closely with Signe Nedergaard, and discovered the extraordinary Cabozantinib ic50 physiology of one of the most remarkable tissues in biology. The caterpillar midgut transports potassium ions from blood to lumen so fast that it can generate transepithelial potentials in excess of 150 mV, and short circuit currents in excess of 1 mA/cm2 (Harvey and Nedergaard, 1964). Of course,

this was absolutely the best place in the world to make such a discovery, since Zerahn was a colleague of Nobel laureate George de Hevesy as he introduced radioisotopes as tracers. Later Zerahn was a co-inventor with Ussing of the eponymous Ussing chamber for the measurement of epithelial transport. (Incidentally, the pedigree is even more distinguished, because Ussing was in turn a student of August Krogh, the Nobel-winning father of comparative physiology.) As a result, a flurry of papers followed, characterising the tissue, its structure and its remarkable transport properties. Bill returned to a Faculty post at the University of Massachusetts, where he served as Assistant, then Associate and Professor from 1961 to 1969. He also visited John Treherne and Arthur Ramsay in Zoology at Cambridge – another world centre of insect physiology – as a Guggenheim Fellow, in 1967–8. On his return, opportunity beckoned once again, and Bill took up a position as Professor Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 of Biology at Temple

University in Philadelphia, where he remained till his ‘retirement’ in 1996. In extended collaborations with Zerahn, Nedergaard, Wood, Haskell and others, he used microelectrodes, the short circuit technique and radioisotope fluxes to show that the midgut current was carried entirely by potassium ions, confirming the existence of Ramsay’s so-called “potassium pump”. He linked this pump to the protein decorations that were first described by Gupta and Berridge in 1966. In an ultrastructural paper with Anderson that same year he had reported similar decorations on the cytoplasmic surface of apical membranes of midgut goblet cells (Anderson and Harvey, 1966). Harvey reviewed the presence of these decorations across a wide range of transporting epithelial cells and introduced the term ‘portasomes’.

Following the interpretation of Balloux & Lugon-Moulin (2002), th

Following the interpretation of Balloux & Lugon-Moulin (2002), the differentiation between CB and GB should be regarded as large, while that between PB and GB and that between PB and CB as moderate. It is worth noting that the genetic distance between PB and CB was less than between PB and GB ( Table 3), whereas the geographic distances are ca 1000 and 400 km respectively. The greatest genetic distance (FST = 0.19) was found between the CB and GB populations, which was clearly visualised by the PCoA analysis ( Figure 2), showing that the proportion of individuals with a similar genetic profile in these two populations is very small. The result of the assignment test

performed in STRUCTURE is presented in Figure 3. We tested the assignation of sampled individuals to different numbers of genetic clusters (K), ranging from one to 10; we found that the most probable number of genetic clusters was two (K = 2). The ΔK values obtained for RG7420 ic50 all the remaining numbers of clusters (K = 3 – 10) appeared to have much lower values than for K = 2. The result of the assignment test ( Figure 3) is therefore in agreement

with the one obtained with the PCoA analysis ( Figure 2): the populations in CB and PB are genetically closer to each other than to the one in GB. Because of the endangered status of seagrass Zostera marina and its importance for coastal water ecosystems, studies of the population genetics of this species are expected to become more AZD1208 and more common. For this reason, we developed a multiplex panel permitting the assay of 12 microsatellite loci in two sets, each with 6 loci. The multiplex is composed of msDNA loci described by other authors and already used in analyses of polymorphism in eelgrass populations ( Reusch et al., 1999, Reusch, 2000b and Reusch, 2002). We believe that the multiplex we optimised should facilitate further analyses of genetic structure of populations of this species, and also substantially lower their cost. The PB population is of special interest as it has become seriously degraded

and is in urgent need of restoration. Eelgrass is a key HSP90 habitat-forming species and in the case of PB indispensable for the maintenance of fish populations, especially of pike and pike-perch, two species that the local fishery and numerous anglers depend on. It is known that populations of eelgrass and top predatory fish are mutually dependent. The eelgrass meadows provide a convenient spawning ground for fish and a shelter for fry. On the other hand, a reduction in size of top predatory fish results in an increase in the number of intermediate predators and herbivorous fish. There is thus greater pressure on mesograzers and zooplankton, leading to the overgrowth of ephemeral algae and phytoplankton as well as to the eutrophication and degradation of the eelgrass meadows (Moksnes et al., 2008 and Baden et al., 2010).


finning bans are an important first step, but th


finning bans are an important first step, but they may be ineffective at reducing overall shark mortality, as there is no evidence that global shark catch or shark fin trade is declining. Given the failure to effectively reduce the unsustainable mortality of sharks on a global scale, Nivolumab cost there appears a need for a more binding international agreement on the protection of sharks. This could be similar to what has been done for the global conservation of whales through the establishment of the International Whaling Commission [5]. In that case, a globally threatened group of large marine animals was effectively saved from extinction by imposing stringent global catch regulations, and ultimately a global moratorium on commercial whaling. If the goal was to at least partially rebuild depleted shark populations worldwide, what actions would be required? Caddy and Agnew [33] and Worm et al. [34] have discussed management options that

exist for rebuilding fish populations, and analyzed the empirical evidence for successful recovery; Ward-Paige et al. [32] recently reviewed the same issue for sharks. These authors concluded that rebuilding depleted stocks is demonstrably possible, and occurs where a number of management instruments are combined to reduce mortality to an appropriately low level [32], [33] and [34]. This level depends both on the status of the stock, and its productivity, or rebound potential [33]. As most shark populations selleck products have low productivity compared to other fish stocks, and stock status is typically

poor or unknown, the case for ensuring a large decrease in catches and the establishment of a moratorium on fishing appears strong [32] and [33]. In the absence of a complete moratorium, the rebuilding of depleted shark populations requires very stringent controls on exploitation rates, the enforcement of appropriately low mortality rates, the protection of critical habitats, monitoring, and education [32]. Such controls have been implemented with some success in parts of the United States, for example [8], but would be more difficult to enforce elsewhere [15], [19] and [35]. Given that the costs of these measures can be considerable and are currently Morin Hydrate carried by tax payers in shark fishing nations, some of this burden could be shifted to the shark fishing and fin export industries. Shark fins are a luxury product [25], which means that demand is unlikely to be curbed by modest price increases. Thus, imposing taxes on the export or import of shark fins will generate income that could be directed to these domestic shark fisheries management efforts. Another option is to focus on the most vulnerable species, particularly those that are heavily affected by the global fin trade. CITES currently protects three of the most charismatic species, the whale, basking, and white sharks.

One important result is depicted in Figure 18 The higher

One important result is depicted in Figure 18. The higher see more temperature gradient of ‘2 × CO2’ causes a stronger cyclonic circulation and, as a consequence of the geostrophic balance, a higher mean water level up to 24 cm in the southern North Sea. On top of this, the global isostatic water level rise must be added. The regional wind forcing from the ‘2 × CO2’ scenario has been used by Langenberg et al. (1999) to study storm-related sea level variations along the North Sea coast. The result is summarized for eight locations on the Dutch–German–Danish coast (Figure 19). The mean storm surge levels (50% percentile) rise significantly

along the whole coastal section, but the extremes (90% percentile) do not exceed the statistical noise. The conclusion is that higher surges learn more will be faced but no new extremes. Jungclaus & Wagner (1988) have investigated the gradual alteration of the M2-tide in the North Sea as a consequence of the global rise in mean sea level. They applied a two-dimensional barotropic model to the cases of 2, 5 and 10 m rises. The variations are not dramatic, but nevertheless clear in tendency. The central amphidromic point in the southern North Sea (see Figure 2) is gradually shifting (as theoretically expected) towards the north-west. Within

the next 100 years this will cause a slight growth of tidal ranges on the German, Danish and Norwegian coasts and a slight decrease in Dutch and British waters (Figure 20). At the International North Sea conferences in Hamburg (1996) and in Wilhelmshaven (2000) ‘Grand Challenges’ for North Sea research were formulated (Sündermann et al. 2001): • The interactions between the north-west European shelf and its adjacent oceanic and terrestrial regimes, i.e. with the North

Atlantic and the European landmass. This topic has particular relevance to questions on climate change and its effects on the North Sea ecosystem. These challenges lead, of course, beyond physics and concern all the marine sciences, as well as coastal engineering, socio-economics and politics. For marine physics the following research areas can be highlighted (Sündermann 2003a): The transfer mechanisms of Atlantic variability to the North Sea have to be analysed and quantified. Methocarbamol This concerns both the physical and the biological subsystems, and encompasses time scales from seasons to decades. Of specific interest is the causal chain of global climate change – the reaction of the marine ecosystem to bentho-pelagic coupling and changes in biodiversity. Key processes include upper layer dynamics, eutrophication, algal blooms, dynamics of pollutants, trophic relations, recruitment, morphodynamics, pelago-benthic coupling, nutrient regeneration and biodiversity. Targeted process-oriented field experiments should be combined with laboratory work (incl. mesocosms) and model investigations.

, 2001), total alkalinity (TA, Lee et al , 2006), sea surface tem

, 2001), total alkalinity (TA, Lee et al., 2006), sea surface temperature (SST, Johnson et al., 2002), and sea surface salinity (SAL, Bingham et al., 2010 and Johnson et al., 2002). Here, we use a surface pCO2 climatology and derive an updated relationship between measured TA and SAL to provide two CO2 system parameters that can be used to calculate other carbonate chemistry parameters including, aragonite saturation state and TCO2. These data are used to quantify for the first time the magnitude of regional and seasonal variability in aragonite Dasatinib clinical trial saturation state and the processes driving

this variability in the Pacific Island region. Our study covers surface seawater (pressure ≤ 10 dbar) in the region delimited by 120°E:140°W and 35°S:30°N. This region includes many Pacific Island nations and contains a number of surface Crizotinib purchase water masses influenced by major currents (Fig. 1). The following discussion on the temporal and spatial variability of the CO2 system parameters firstly considers the whole Pacific study area. More detailed discussion of the factors controlling the variability in Ωar for the four subregions that characterize major water masses of the study area is presented. These subregions are described below and are the Western Pacific Warm Pool, the Central Equatorial Pacific, and two areas north and south of the Equator. Western Pacific Warm Pool

(WPWP, 0°:8°N, 142.5°E:162.5°E): The WPWP subregion is characterized by sea surface temperature (SST) values greater than 29 °C and surface salinities less than 34 (McPhaden and Picaut, 1990 and McPhaden, 1999). The entire WPWP is usually found between about 120°E to 160°E and 8°S to10°N. On interannual time scales and under El Niño conditions, the WPWP can extend eastward as far as 140 °C (McPhaden and Picaut, 1990 and McPhaden, 1999). During the summer monsoon season, greater precipitation

lowers the salinity and the density of the surface seawater leading to a thickening of a barrier layer (De Boyer Montégut et al., 2007) that limits the exchange of CO2 and nutrients between the mixed layer and deeper water (Feely et al., 2002, Ishii et al., 2001 and Le Borgne et al., 2002). The partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters is similar to PTK6 atmospheric values and the net exchange of CO2 across the sea–air interface is small (Ishii et al., 2001 and Ishii et al., 2009). Central Equatorial Pacific (CEP, 4°S:4°N, 157.5°W:142.5°W): The CEP is east of the WPWP. The southeast trade winds are strongest from June to September, followed by a strengthening of the northeast trade winds from November to February. The increased strength of the trade winds causes enhanced upwelling of waters from the upper thermocline in this region (Reverdin et al., 1994 and Wang et al., 2000). This upwelling brings cooler and saltier waters, higher in TCO2, TA, and pCO2 (Wanninkhof et al.