[18] Again, issues such as how well remunerated the staff are, an

[18] Again, issues such as how well remunerated the staff are, and how well staffed the pharmacy is, might also be important in determining the level of professionalism in place. Although this definition

was developed with US pharmacies in mind, some of the issues raised are at the heart of pharmacy practice in the UK and beyond, where often community pharmacists are described by other healthcare professionals as shopkeepers. In many developed countries, including Seliciclib the UK, the majority of pharmacists have been forced into either employee status or into locum positions, thereby minimising their impact on the professional development of pharmacy. The situation in the less developed nations is even more pathetic, as the pharmacy business is often controlled by traders, many of whom are involved in the illicit

supply of adulterated or expired medicines. These ownership arrangements have a direct negative impact on professionalism and pharmacists’ ability to meet government agendas for the enhanced role of pharmacists in public health. One of the strategies accepted by many as being very effective in this occupational professionalisation is the professional socialisation process,[5,18] Selleck Talazoparib which tends to occur during both student education and professional practice 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase and has been defined as the process by which students learn and adopt the values, attitudes and practice behaviours

of a profession.[18] It has also been agreed that, in general, formal curricula, including experiential learning (work experience), help to socialise students, hopefully in a positive direction, while ‘hidden curricula’ (i.e. attitudes and behaviours that are formally taught) and experiences outside the formal curriculum are also helpful in socialising students in positive or negative directions.[18] A balance of positive influences in both student education and professional practice is therefore required to produce a professional practitioner,[5] but often this expected balance does not occur. In order to explain this imbalance, the term ‘inconsistent socialisation’ has been developed to explain the conflict that regularly occurs between the forces of socialisation and leads to differences between students’ and recent graduates’ expectations concerning their role in health care and other individuals’ expectations of this role.

The PhoU mutant identified in our previous transposon mutant scre

The PhoU mutant identified in our previous transposon mutant screen has the transposon inserted near the C terminus of the phoU gene and has a more obvious persister phenotype than the phoU deletion mutant (Y. Li & Y. Zhang, unpublished data). Thus the finding that the PhoU deletion mutant find more did not come up in our screen may be due to compensatory changes or mutations, which may indicate a limitation of the deletion mutant library approach. Like the PhoU mutant (Li & Zhang, 2007), the sucB and ubiF mutants have increased susceptibility to various stresses and different antibiotics with a two- to fourfold decrease in MIC and MBC (Table 1). It is generally assumed that mutations in genes involved

in persistence should not affect the MIC (Hansen et al., 2008). However, this may not necessarily be true. It is possible that mutation in a persister Sotrastaurin order gene can affect antibiotic susceptibility not only in persisters but also in growing bacteria. As the current MIC and MBC testing is performed with a standard inoculum of 105–106 organisms of log phase cultures that may contain some persister bacteria already, it is likely that persisters may contribute to the MIC and MBC under normal MIC/MBC testing conditions. When the standard inoculum is inoculated into the culture medium containing antibiotics for MIC/MBC

testing, the mutants with defective persister formation are killed more rapidly than the wild-type bacteria at a given antibiotic concentration in the medium and therefore have lower MIC/MBC. In fact, all our persister-defective mutants, including phoU identified in the previous study (Li & Zhang, 2007) and ubiF and sucB identified in this study, have about two- to fourfold lower MIC/MBC than Nutlin 3 the wild-type strain. A recent study, using the E. coli Keio mutant library screen to identify persistence genes with a short ofloxacin exposure of 6 h, found primarily stress response genes dnaJ and

dnaK (chaperones), apaH (diadenosine tetraphosphatase involved in stress resistance), surA (peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase involved in stationary phase survival), fis and hns (global regulators), hnr (response regulator of RpoS), dksA (RNA polymerase-binding transcription factor, a positive regulator of RpoS), ygfA (5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase) and yigB (FMN phosphatase) (Hansen et al., 2008). As we indicated previously (Li & Zhang, 2007), persisters are highly variable and have to be defined by specific conditions. Persisters may consist of different subpopulations of varying hierarchy in continuum (Zhang, 2007), and different times of antibiotic exposure may lead to different persister populations, with longer exposure causing increasingly fewer persisters, which can be called ‘deep persisters’ (with lower metabolism), which are not killed by antibiotics even with long antibiotic exposure.

However, intracellular M bovis CFU decreases drastically after 2

However, intracellular M. bovis CFU decreases drastically after 24 h, which could be attributed to the massive cellular death observed. The CFU assessment shows no significant difference in the intracellular bacterial load of M. bovis between MDMs from tuberculosis and healthy control cattle. BTB is a chronic infectious disease caused by the pathogen M. bovis and continues to pose a threat to livestock

worldwide. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis in cattle and M. bovis Beijing strains cause a substantial proportion of tuberculosis cases worldwide (Chen et al., 2009; Kremer et al., 2009). Understanding the specific immune response to BTB will aid in developing improved control and diagnostic strategies. Studies on tuberculosis in humans indicate that innate immunity, Nintedanib solubility dmso TLR signaling and the Th1/Th2 bias of the immune response are essential for host defense against tuberculosis (Doherty & Arditi, 2004; Winek et al., 2009; Ahmad, 2011). However, these specific cell signal pathways and immune responses are poorly defined in cattle. Meade et selleckchem al. (2006)

examined the gene expression profiles of PBMCs from BTB-infected and healthy cattle and demonstrated the differential expression of innate immunity-related genes. In this study, gene expressions of MDMs cells from tuberculosis and healthy groups stimulated with M. bovis were detected. Seven genes (IL1β, IL1R1, IL1A, TNF-α, IL10, TLR2 and TLR4) implicated in immune responses were examined. In MDMs, the expression of the seven examined genes was increased in both stimulated tuberculosis and stimulated healthy cattle. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL1β and its receptor IL1R1 markedly increased, indicating that these genes may play a key role in the early interaction of host cells and M. bovis. The expression of these three genes, although elevated in response to M. bovis stimulation,

showed no significant difference between the two groups. This finding may indicate that the macrophages from tuberculosis cattle have a capability similar to healthy cattle in generating proinflammatory cytokine (IL1β and TNF-α) during early immune response to M. bovis stimulation. In agreement, Decitabine mw it is frequently reported that the tuberculosis infection could induce a burst of inflammatory cytokines IL1β and TNF-α in the infected location (Arcila et al., 2007; Qiu et al., 2008; Winek et al., 2009). Two Toll-like receptor genes (TLR2 and TLR4) were examined. The two genes have been studied widely, because they are very important in innate immunity and TLR signaling aids the activation of antigen-specific T cells (Cooper, 2009). Previous studies demonstrated that M. tuberculosis products can be recognized by TLR2 or TLR4 (Aliprantis et al., 1999; Underhill et al., 1999; Abel et al., 2002).

In addition, ABC transporter proteins in Pd01-ZJU were characteri

In addition, ABC transporter proteins in Pd01-ZJU were characterized, and the roles of typical subfamilies (ABCG, ABCC, and ABCB) in imazalil resistance were explored using real-time PCR. Seven ABC proteins, including the previously

characterized PMR1 and PMR5, were induced by imazalil, which suggests a role in drug resistance. In summary, this work presents genome information of the R1 genotype P. digitatum and systematically investigates DNA elements and ABC proteins associated with imazalil resistance for the first time, which would be indicative for studying resistant mechanisms in other pathogenic fungi. “
“Lupanine hydroxylase (LH), a quinohaemoprotein, catabolizes lupanine and possesses four cysteine (Cys) residues; two associated with a cytochrome c motif (586Cys and 589Cys), while the role of the remaining two residues Selleck Epacadostat (124Cys and 143Cys) is unclear. Structural graphic simulation using homology modelling selleck chemical suggested a potential second -S-S- bond, a common feature between adjacent Cys residues in other quinohaemoproteins; however, in LH, these residues are located 18 amino acids apart. Formation of the second disulphide bond was initially chemically confirmed by iodomethane alkylation with 91% loss of enzymic activity,

and no significant change was observed with unreduced alkylated protein. Dithiothreitol-induced reduction of LH followed by Cd2+ treatment also resulted in significant loss of activity in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequent investigation into the role of disulphide bond in LH was performed using engineered 143CysSer and 124,143CysSer mutants and exhibited 25% and zero activity, respectively, of wild type in the periplasm. Homology structure prediction showed three changes in α-helices and four in β-pleated sheets in 143CysSer mutant,

and 124,143CysSer mutant had six changes in α-helices and nine in β-pleated sheets. These mutations resulted in the enlargement of the molecule and affect the enzyme activity because of structural changes in the cytochrome tuclazepam c domain. Quinoproteins are currently finding increasing uses in biotechnology as biosensors and for bioremediations because of their unique substrate specificity and ability to oxidize substrates harmful to cells (Matsushita et al., 2002). They have highly conserved domains and share propeller-like appearance in an arrangement of eight-four-twisted antiparallel β-sheets (W motifs) forming a superbarrel structure (Toyama et al., 2004). A pyrrolo-quinoline quinone (PQQ) moiety is located in the middle of the superbarrel structure and is readily accessible from the outside of the molecule through a small hydrophobic canal (Anthony & Ghosh, 1998). It functions by establishing several hydrogen bonds via its carboxyl groups to the neighbouring amino acid residues and the Ca2+ atom, and this linkage to the apo-polypeptide is crucial for enzymic activity (Oubrie & Dijkstra, 2000).

001) The percentage of new prescriptions from physician extender

001). The percentage of new prescriptions from physician extenders remained relatively constant across periods for all five medications. Seventy-to-eighty per cent of all new target medication prescriptions were from ID clinics,

10% from primary care clinics and 10% from other clinics (data not shown; P<0.001). From March 2003 until December 2007, 49% of all HIV-infected veterans who were prescribed antiretrovirals were in the Southern USA, 20% were in the West, 18% were in the Northeast, and 13% were in the Northcentral (Fig. 3). Significant shifts in prescribing by region over time occurred for Epigenetics inhibitor all target antiretrovirals. Lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir had earliest uptake in the West but by period 3 new prescribing had increased in

the South, closely matching prescribing of all antiretrovirals (P<0.001). Tipranavir had a similar pattern, with greatest early uptake in the West and much less uptake in the Northeast – a pattern that reversed over time (P=0.001). Darunavir had greatest initial uptake in the South but over time uptake increased in the Northeast and Northcentral regions and decreased in the South (P=0.03). Tipranavir and darunavir were FDA approved for use in treatment-experienced patients; hence, <2% of veterans prescribed these agents in any quarter were antiretroviral-naïve (data not shown). Of veterans who received atazanavir in the first two quarters post-approval, 2% C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) were antiretroviral naïve compared with 9% of veterans who received it in later quarters after approval (P<0.001). Of providers prescribing any antiretrovirals within the VHA, the proportion that prescribed check details each target medication rose quickly over the first five-to-six

quarters and then plateaued (e.g. atazanavir) or declined (e.g. tipranavir) (Fig. 4). In the first quarter post-approval, <5% of all antiretroviral prescribers wrote prescriptions for the target medications. By the eighth quarter, however, nearly 30% of all providers prescribing any antiretrovirals within the VHA were prescribing atazanavir in a pattern matching that of lopinavir/ritonavir. For the other target medications, regardless of duration of follow-up, <10% of antiretroviral prescribers were prescribing these agents in any quarter. On average, in any quarter approximately 3750 VHA providers prescribed an antiretroviral. The peak number and percentage of providers prescribing atazanavir occurred in quarter 14 post-approval, with 1189 out of 3702 providers (32.1%) prescribing atazanavir. For darunavir, the number of providers was still increasing at the end of the study period, with 334 out of 3848 providers (8.7%) prescribing darunavir in quarter 6 (the last complete quarter for which data are available). The peak number of providers prescribing tipranavir occurred in the fifth quarter, with 171 out of 3654 providers (4.

DNA probes used for EMSAs were prepared by labeling at the 3′ end

DNA probes used for EMSAs were prepared by labeling at the 3′ end with digoxigenin (DIG)-11-ddUTP. The DNA-protein binding reactions were carried out at 20 °C in a final volume of 10 μL mixture containing 3 fmol of DIG-labeled probe, 0.5 µg of salmon sperm DNA, 0.1 µg of poly-(l-lysine), and 50 ng of purified ht-IphR (0.8 pmol dimer) in a binding buffer [20 mM HEPES, 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM (NH4)2SO4, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.2% (w/v) Tween 20, and 30 mM KCl, pH 7.6] for 20 min following the same procedure described earlier (Kamimura et al., 2010). When required,

effectors Wnt inhibitor including IPA or unlabeled fragments shown in Fig. S1 were added to a final concentration of 1 mM or 3 μM, respectively. Gel electrophoresis and the detection of signals were carried out as described previously (Kamimura et al., 2010). In a previous study, E6 cells harboring a lacZ reporter plasmid, pZSH2 containing a 1794 bp region upstream from the iphA start codon, showed 88-fold higher β-galactosidase activity in the presence of IPA (Fukuhara et al., 2010). To determine the iphA www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html promoter region, a set of deletion plasmids of pZSH2 was constructed and used for the promoter assay (Fig. 1a). The inducible expressions of the iphA promoter variants were observed in

IPA-grown E6 cells harboring pZSM1, pZSP08, pZSN06, pZSNE530, and pZSNE347. On the other hand, no promoter activity was shown in E6 cells harboring pZSNE198. These results suggested that the region sufficient for the IPA-dependent induction of the iphA promoter was located within a 160 bp region upstream from the iphA start codon. The transcription start site of iphA was determined by primer extension analyses using total RNA isolated from E6 and the iphR mutant (DEIR) cells. A 159-nucleotides (nt) DNA fragment was observed when using total RNA from E6 cells grown in the presence of IPA (Fig. 1b); however, no significant extension product was seen in the absence of IPA

(data not shown). From these results, the transcription start site of the iph operon was determined to be a cytosine located 49 bp upstream of the iphA start codon (Fig. 1c). Putative −35 and −10 sequences separated by 16 nt were found upstream of the transcription start site. We also found two inverted repeat sequences IR1 Lumacaftor chemical structure and IR2. In the case of DEIR, a 159-nt DNA fragment appeared regardless of the presence of IPA in the cultures (data not shown). These results supported that the iph operon is negatively autoregulated by IphR. To further identify the iphA promoter region, pZ347, pZ284, pZ274, and pZ255 were constructed and used for the promoter assays (Fig. 1c). The inducible expression of the iphA promoter was observed in E6 cells harboring pZ347, pZ284, and pZ274 (Table 1). However, cells harboring pZ255, which lacks the putative −35 sequence, showed no promoter activity.

4%–7%, in farmers) have been reported in the same areas9 In seve

4%–7%, in farmers) have been reported in the same areas.9 In several European countries, treatments with injectable or pour-on ivermectin formulations have been used for nationwide control of cattle hypodermosis (reviewed by Boulard et al.10), resulting in the reduction of the prevalence of infection to just 0.5%. Indeed, in the UK, Ireland, and Denmark cattle hypodermosis has been eradicated.

Consequently, the number of reports of human infestation by Hypoderma spp. has been greatly reduced.11 However, the increasing movement of people around the world, in particular, to and from developing countries, can expose travelers to these “exotic” pathogens now. This paper reports a case of imported human hypodermosis in a European man Crizotinib cell line returning from northern India. The patient showed severe symptoms that clinically resembled those of other parasitoses, leading to initial misdiagnoses of lymphatic filariasis, www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html gnathostomiasis, and sparganosis. The surgical extraction of larvae suggested a diagnosis of a probable myiasis although it was not until an anti-Hypoderma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was performed that the diagnosis was confirmed. The causal agent was identified as Hypoderma

sinense by molecular methods. The patient was a 34-year-old Spanish man who had traveled to Ladakh, a mountainous area in northern India, as a tourist guide in August 2006. Goats and yaks are raised in the area. In October 2006, the patient started to notice discomfort and abdominal pain. One month later he began suffering from painful inflammation in the right groin and testicular region. The patient was initially treated at a hospital

in Madrid, where he was subjected to ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. These revealed inflammation of the right spermatic cord ZD1839 research buy plus iliac and inguinal adenopathy. The patient also showed notable eosinophilia (5,100 eosinophils/µL, 31.2%). Day and night blood microfilariae level tests returned negative results, as performed by filarial-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), tests for faecal and urinary parasites, and parasitic (filariasis, trichinellosis, toxocariasis, anisakiasis, strongyloidosis), bacterial (brucellosis, salmonellosis, tuberculin, urinary mycobacterium), and viral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)] serological tests. In spite of the laboratory results, lymphatic filariasis was suspected, and the patient was treated with albendazole (a single dose of 400 mg) and diethylcarbamazine (6 mg/kg/d/15 d) plus prednisone (60 mg/d/5 d). After beginning the prednisone treatment, the eosinophil count decreased significantly to 100/µL (0.4%), only to increase again to 2,590/µL (21.1%) once the treatment was suspended. In January 2007, the patient was referred to the Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, by this time with a swollen left thigh.

The average annual number of organized trips from Finland abroad

The average annual number of organized trips from Finland abroad during 1999 to 2007 was around 940,000 (Figure 2). There was a sudden drop in the numbers during 2001 to 2003, down to 880,000 trips per year. A concomitant drop was seen in the number of malaria cases. During 1997 to 2008 the total number of overnight leisure trips abroad nearly doubled, from 1.7 million in 1998 to 3.3 million in 2008. The increasing trend

observed with overnight leisure trips was also seen in travel to malaria-endemic countries, including high-risk areas (Figure 3). Antimalarial drug sales decreased nearly 50%, from 49,000 units in 1997 to 25,000 in 2005, but since 2005 a new increase was observed, and in 2007 the number of units sold was roughly 61,000. The same trend was observed Akt inhibitor Epacadostat cell line for sales expressed in daily treatment doses (DDD) for different antimalarials

(Figure 4). Antimalarial drug sales were highest during the first (35%) and last quarters (18%) of the years and followed the same seasonal pattern as traveling (Figure 5). Malaria cases occurred year-round with an increasing trend toward the end of the year (data not shown). This nationwide population-based study showed that even though traveling to malaria-endemic areas increased during the 14-year period, no corresponding increase in malaria cases occurred. Moreover, during the same period, the overall antimalarial drug sales decreased, while a slight increase was 4��8C observed with the last available data. The increase in travels to endemic areas with no concomitant increase in drug sales suggests that travel advice was not reaching all groups of travelers. It appears that this concerns especially immigrants visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in their former home country and travelers on self-organized trips, because a significant proportion of travelers with malaria in Finland were observed in these groups. During the study period, nearly 500 malaria cases (average annual incidence 0.7/100,000 population) were

reported in Finland. All cases were imported; no autochthonous cases have been found in Finland since the 1950s.11 Malaria is a notifiable disease in most of the European countries, but underreporting exists; in some European countries, underreporting of imported malaria cases is estimated to be as high as 60%,12 whereas the estimate for Finland is around 20%.13 We believe, however, that in reality, there is no significant underreporting in Finland. The reference laboratory collects additional information from clinicians, and these two databases have been compared annually; the same individual cases have been identified in both (H. Siikamäki, unpublished results). Data from annual surveys showed a linear increase in the total number of leisure trips abroad since 1997.

6βHF : F ratios were available for 107 women antepartum, with 54

6βHF : F ratios were available for 107 women antepartum, with 54 having postpartum values. The ratio was higher antepartum (P = 0.033) (median comparison 1.35; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.81). For 71 women taking a protease inhibitor (PI), the antepartum vs. postpartum

6βHF : F comparison was marginally significant (P = 0.058). When the change in the 6βHF : F ratio was related to the change in the dose-adjusted Selleckchem Screening Library ARV area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve (AUC) between antepartum and postpartum, the 35 subjects in the lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) arms demonstrated an inverse relationship (P = 0.125), albeit this correlation did not reach statistical significance. A 35% increase in the urinary 6βHF : F ratio was measured during late pregnancy compared with postpartum, indicating that CYP3A induction occurs during pregnancy. The trend towards an inverse relationship between the change in the 6βHF : F ratio and the change in the LPV AUC antepartum vs. postpartum

suggests that CYP3A induction may be selleck one mechanism behind altered LPV exposure during pregnancy. “
“Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed the care of people with HIV, but it is important to monitor time trends in indicators of treatment success and antic future changes. We assessed time trends from 2000 to 2007 in several indicators of treatment success in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) Study,

and using national HIV data from the Health Protection Agency (HPA) we developed a model to project future trends. The proportion of patients on ART with a viral load <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL increased from 62% in 2000 to 84% in 2007, and the proportion of all patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/μL decreased from 21% to 10%. During this period, the number of patients who experienced extensive triple class failure (ETCF) rose from 147 (0.9%) to 1771 (3.9%). The number who experienced such ETCF and had a current viral load >50 copies/mL rose fromz 118 (0.7%) to 857 (1.9%). Projections to 2012 suggest sustained high levels of success, Liothyronine Sodium with a continued increase in the number of patients who have failed multiple drugs but a relatively stable number of such patients experiencing viral loads >50 copies/mL. Numbers of deaths are projected to remain low. There have been continued improvements in key indicators of success in patients with HIV from 2000 to 2007. Although the number of patients who have ETCF is projected to rise in the future, the number of such patients with viral loads >50 copies/mL is not projected to increase up to 2012. New drugs may be needed in future to sustain these positive trends. Use of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to major improvements in the health of HIV-infected populations [1–6].

S1) This indicates that this deletion is an ancient trait of the

S1). This indicates that this deletion is an ancient trait of the rpoN gene in this group. Although Region

II has been implicated in DNA melting and holoenzyme stability, its absence in all these proteins strongly supports the idea that this region is dispensable for σ54 functioning. Other minor differences were observed, among which the low conservation of the region that encompasses residues 310–330 is the most noticeable. The relevance of these differences remains to be established. Similarity percent was calculated from the sequences included in Fig. S1. From these values (Table S1), we observed that the RpoN proteins from the Rhodobacter genus show a low degree of similarity (around 50–60%), even when the RpoN proteins from http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html the same species are compared. Similarity values are also within this range when these sequences are compared with RpoN from E. coli. Considering that α-proteobacteria diverged from γ-β-proteobacteria approximately 2.5 billion years ago (Battistuzzi et al., 2004), it would have been reasonable to assume that the RpoNs should have been more similar among Rhodobacter species than to

species that belong to other groups. This assumption is true for other proteins, but not for RpoN. For instance, RpoB (the beta subunit of the RNA polymerase) is 95% similar between R. sphaeroides Obeticholic Acid manufacturer and R. capsulatus species, but only 76% to RpoB from E. coli. Similarly, RpoD (encoding the σ70 factor) from R. sphaeroides is 90% similar to RpoD from R. capsulatus while the RpoDRs and RpoDEc are only 62% similar. Even nonessential genes, like GltB (large subunit of the glutamate synthase), show a 93% similarity between R. capsulatus and R. sphaeroides, but only 59% similarity to GltBEc. Therefore, it seems that in the Rhodobacter genus, the different rpoN copies must have diverged at a higher rate

than other genes in the chromosome. In agreement with this hypothesis, it has been shown that functional duplicated genes usually show a faster evolution rate than other genes in the genome (Kondrashov et al., 2002; Jordan et al., 2004). In Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin accordance, it has been shown that R. sphaeroides has a high degree of gene duplication, and in general, these genes are more similar to their orthologues than to their paralogues (Choudhary et al., 2004), suggesting a high divergence rate. The evolutionary forces that underlie this high rate of divergence remain unclear. Although rpoN genes seem to have been accumulating mutations at a fast rate, the orthologue copies of the different rpoN genes are more similar between them than to their paralogues (Table S1); for example, rpoN1, rpoN2, and rpoN3 from R. azotoformans show a very high similarity (around 90%) to their probable orthologues in R. sphaeroides, suggesting a common origin for all the members of each family of orthologues. The same pattern of sequence similarity could also be due to an HGT origin of these genes.