In order to identify seasonal and/or spatial patterns in the envi

In order to identify seasonal and/or spatial patterns in the environmental data, the data were log(x + 1) transformed and principle component analyses (PCA) performed on the whole dataset. The range, average and standard error of the hydrological and biological data for the twelve months period are listed in Table 1. Over the twelve months of the study, the

YSI profiles for temperature and salinity did not exhibit any vertical changes along the water column, suggesting that the water column was well mixed. This was reflected in the hydrological and biological data as there RG7204 in vivo was no significant difference between the surface and bottom samples. In addition, there was no difference between the temperature, salinity, nutrients and the biological parameters measured at the ADP intake pipe (S1) and outfall (S2–S5). In order to summarise the weight of each environmental parameter in setting the environmental conditions of the study, a PCA was applied. The PCA revealed clear clustering along the primary (PC1) and secondary (PC2) axes, explaining a total of 57.4% of the variance observed during the survey period (Figure 2). The first principal component (PC1: 41.3% of variance) was related to temperature, wind speed/direction

and phosphorus content, while the second principal component (PC2: 16.1% of variance) GNE-0877 was related to salinity, silicate and nitrogen. The main environmental drivers of the temporal variability of the Gulf therefore seem to be temperature, wind speed/direction

and phosphorus levels. However, PS-341 ic50 the variability observed during autumn and winter months is driven by changing levels of salinity, nitrogen and silica. The water temperature exhibited a clear australseasonal pattern with a maximum of 22°C in January (summer) and a minimum of 13 °C in July (winter; Figure 3). Salinity did not show any clear seasonal pattern, with an average [± standard error (SE)] of 37.17 (±0.03) PSU (Figure 3). Currents along the Adelaide metropolitan coastline generally flow parallel to the shore, but are seasonally influenced by a variety of factors, including wind direction, temperature and salinity gradients (Pattiaratchi et al. 2006). In particular, the north-south (NS) wind direction showed a seasonal pattern, with upwelling-favourable conditions prevailing in summer and autumn and downwelling-favourable conditions prevailing in winter (Figure 3). All nutrients (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and silicate) exhibited a seasonal cycle with lower concentrations during summer (Figure 3). During spring and summer, ammonium was the most abundant source of nitrogen, while nitrate and nitrite were the prevalent source of nitrogen during autumn and winter (data not shown).

Two different acceptor beads can be used: with AlphaScreen accept

Two different acceptor beads can be used: with AlphaScreen acceptor beads, final emission is from rubrene (λem=520–620 nm); with AlphaLISA acceptor beads, the final emission is from europium that is doped into the beads which shows a much narrower emission spectrum (λem=615 nm). For protein kinases,

typically a biotinylated peptide substrate is conjugated to streptavidin coated donor beads and a phosphospecific antibody is conjugated to protein A coated acceptor bead ( Von Leoprechting et al., 2004). Because long wavelength light is used for excitation and emission occurs at shorter wavelengths, optical interference of the excitation light by compounds

is reduced. However, AlphaScreen has been shown to be susceptible to compound interference by color quenchers of the emission light as well as anti-oxidants, singlet oxygen quenchers, Proteasome inhibitor and biotin mimetics if streptavidin coated beads are used ( Baell and Holloway, 2010). Another consideration in developing AlphaScreen assays is that variation of the biotinylated peptide substrate will show a “hook-effect” (as mentioned above) at high substrate concentrations due to saturation of the streptavidin donor bead binding sites – the signal first increases with increasing peptide, then levels off and starts to decrease when excess peptide is used as the proportion of productive donor acceptor bead complexes decreases due to the excess peptide in the assay ( Quinn et al., 2010). Therefore, it is not possible to determine Km values for the peptide substrate using AlphaScreen as binding capacity of the beads limits the detectable range of substrate concentration. An advantage of this detection strategy is that the large distance dependence (~200 nm) allows the employment Fludarabine manufacturer of physiologically relevant substrates. Analytical approaches to kinase detection include microfluidic

systems for separation based on electrophoretic and electro-osmotic properties of the labeled species (Cohen et al., 1999). In one such technology platform (Caliper, PerkinElmer), optimization of the elution gradient on the UPLC system allows one to run kinase assays at extremely low substrate conversion rates (Wu et al., 2006). In this system, separation and quantification of substrate and product is provided and detection and interfering fluorescent compounds are readily flagged. With generic systems available that detect ATP/ADP conversion one could ask if there is any advantage to protein kinase assay systems that rely on detection of phosphorylated peptides, especially when peptide-based systems are oftentimes incapable of incorporating natural protein substrates.

Hyal are also present in almost all venoms, acting as

a “

Hyal are also present in almost all venoms, acting as

a “diffusion factor” by facilitating the penetration of the other harmful venom components and enhancing their action in various tissues into the bloodstream (Kemparaju and Girish, this website 2006; Senff-Ribeiro et al., 2008). Hyal have been described as “allergenic factors” in scorpion, bee, and wasp venoms, and are able to induce severe and fatal anaphylactic IgE-mediated reactions in humans (Lu et al., 1995; Kolarich et al., 2005). Hyal have already been characterized as glycoproteins (Kemeny et al., 1984; Jin et al., 2008) and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed that the α-1,3-fucose-containing N-glycan is the fundamental structure responsible for their allergenicity (Kubelka Ku-0059436 price et al., 1995; Kolarich and Altmann, 2000; Kolarich et al., 2005). Since allergenic Hyal are phylogenetically more

conserved among the other Hymenoptera allergens (e.g. Ag5 and PLA1), a significant degree of homology is observed among the sequences and 3D structures of these proteins, whether they are from different vespids or honeybee Apis mellifera venom (Api m 2) ( Jin et al., 2010). In addition, a large percentage of patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom show reactivity to both bee and wasp venoms (known as cross-reactivity) in tests for the presence of IgE-specific antibodies ( Hemmer, 2008). This makes selection of the most suitable venom for immunotherapy difficult. However, it is unclear whether this cross-reactivity is due to (a) sequence homology between these hyaluronidases; (b) sensitivity to the specific IgE antibodies; or (c) cross-reactive N-glycans (cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants [CCDs]), which have been investigated Dipeptidyl peptidase in allergens from different sources ( Jin et al., 2010; Eberlein et al., 2012; Al-Ghouleh et al.,

2012). In terms of the mechanism of action on the substrate, Hyal enzymes are classified into three types (Meyer, 1971): (a) the group of the endo-β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidases that hydrolize the high molecular weight substrate (HA) to tetrasaccharide as the main end product, being this group represented by the testicular enzyme; (b) the β-endoglucuronidases group represented by hyase from leeches and hookworm ( Hotez et al., 1994); (c) and finally the group of lyases that act via β-elimination, yielding disaccharides as the main end products represented by the bacterial hyases. According to Laurent (1989), Cramer et al. (1994) and Takagaki et al. (1994) the enzymes of the first group also catalyzes transglycosylation reactions, producing hexa-, di-, and octa-saccharides during hydrolysis of HA. Hyaluronate-4-glycanohydrolase (EC, or Hyal type 1, is an endo-β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase is also found in Hymenoptera venoms and mammalian spermatozoa.

The cross-sectional area is enlarged but the fascicular structure

The cross-sectional area is enlarged but the fascicular structure of the nerve is preserved. In patients with traumatic nerve lesions, adding ultrasonography to electrodiagnosis may provide a lot of important complementary information about the localization and the cause of impaired nerve function, both being essential for deciding upon surgical treatment. Ultrasonography not only allows one to precisely localize the site of nerve injury, it also indicates whether a nerve is completely transected or partially dissected or whether the nerve is displaced or even encased by surrounding scar formation or by a fibrous or bony callus after bone fracture [29], [30],

[31] and [32]. find more Furthermore, ultrasonography may identify fracture fragments compressing nerves in close vicinity to bone fractures or may quantify the amount of nerve retraction after complete nerve transection (Fig. 5). Traumatic neuroma can occur at the site of either partial or complete dissection of the nerve. Neuroma appears as a bulbous concentric enlargement at the terminal end of a transected nerve with homogeneous

texture and hypoechoic echogenicity. In case of only partial dissection, the continuity of the nerve is preserved and neuroma appears as nodular shaped broadening of the nerve contour (Supplementary Fig. 3; to view the figure, please visit the online supplementary file in ScienceDirect). Intraoperative ultrasonography is a promising new field enabling morphological examination of nerve lesions in continuity in order to assess the extent learn more of nerve fibrosis and to discriminate between intraneural or perineural fibrosis. [33]. Both information are valuable to estimate the regenerative potential of a nerve lesion. Supplementary Fig. 3.  Longitudinal view of the median nerve

(arrows) at the Benzatropine wrist. The median nerve is partially dissected with scar formation within the continuity of the nerve and nodular thickening of the nerve contour. Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) and solitary neurofibromas are the most common benign nerve sheath tumors. Sonographically, they appear as well-defined hypoechoic masses with a fusiform shape and a normal-appearing nerve that enters and exits the tumor (Supplementary Fig. 4; to view the figure, please visit the online supplementary file in ScienceDirect) [34] and [35]. Because of their capsule, schwannoma are located more excentric, while not encapsuled neurofibroma are located more centrally compared to the course of the nerve. Since many nerve fascicles remain intact, benign nerve sheath tumors may be missed with electrodiagnostic studies alone. In contrast to benign tumors, malignant nerve sheath tumors are characterized by rapid growth and progressive neurological symptoms. Their shape is ill-defined and their echotexture is more heterogeneous [35]. Supplementary Fig. 4.

Instytut ten

Instytut ten Wnt inhibitor zbudował i nim kierował od chwili jego otwarcia w 1972 roku do swojej śmierci w 1980 roku [1]. Obok klinik pediatrycznych znalazły w nim również miejsce Kliniki Chirurgii i Otolaryngologii Dziecięcej oraz Zakład Biochemii i Analityki Klinicznej [2]. Dziś inna jest już struktura organizacyjna poznańskiej pediatrii klinicznej [3]. Po 35 latach

działalności Instytutu Pediatrii, stworzonej przez Profesora zintegrowanej placówki naukowo-leczniczej dla dzieci i młodzieży, nastąpił powrót do katedr i klinik, czyli polskich uniwersyteckich struktur międzywojennych. Z kierowanej przez niego macierzystej II Kliniki Chorób Dzieci o profilu kardiologiczno-nefrologicznym wywodzi się kilka klinik w dużym stopniu rozwijających kierunki naukowe zainicjowane przed ponad 40 laty. Są to kliniki: Kardiologii i Nefrologii Dziecięcej, Chorób Zakaźnych i Neurologii Dziecięcej, Endokrynologii i Reumatologii Wieku Rozwojowego, Otyłości i Diabetologii Dziecięcej, Gastroenterologii Dziecięcej i Chorób Metabolicznych. selleck kinase inhibitor Nieubłagany kalendarz życia zadecydował, że dziś wśród kierowników tych klinik nie ma już nawet jego uczniów. Są kolejni zdolni sukcesorzy jego spuścizny, którzy w jakże innych warunkach, z możliwością stałej współpracy naukowej praktycznie z całym światem, twórczo kontynuują jego dzieło. Niezmiernie ciekawą drogę życiową

prof. Szczepskiego, poprzez afrykański i włoski szlak bojowy II wojny światowej, w tym Monte Cassino, najlepiej ilustruje jego pamiętnik [4]. Osiągnięcia organizacyjne i naukowe Profesora znalazły również wyraz w wielu publikacjach i leksykonach. Najwszechstronniej jednak, na podstawie materiałów źródłowych, całość jego curriculum vitae znakomicie prześledził i przedstawił Piotr Suda w swojej rozprawie doktorskiej [5]. Sądzę, że najmniej znana jest, nawet poznańskiemu środowisku pediatrycznemu, Y-27632 2HCl etyczno-deontologiczna część działalności dydaktycznej i publikacyjnej

Profesora. Dlatego też, w 100-lecie urodzin Olecha Szczepskiego właśnie tę problematykę warto przypomnieć, tym bardziej że w wieku punktach nie straciła na aktualności. Mimo szalonego postępu nauk biologicznych, dezintegracji medycyny oraz zdobyczy technicznych służących medycynie, dziś okazuje się, jak wizjonerskie było jego stwierdzenie sprzed blisko 40 lat, że „nic dotąd nie wskazuje na to, aby rola lekarza ogólnego stawała się mniej ważna”. Wielokrotnie przypominał, że właśnie pediatrii przypada rola integrująca różne specjalności medycyny wieku rozwojowego i fazy rozwojowe dziecka, łącznie z wiekiem młodzieńczym, dotychczasową „ziemią niczyją”. Z uwagi na znaczny udział psychospołecznych uwarunkowań patologii tego okresu życia, podkreślał psychosomatyczne odrębności wieku młodzieńczego [6], wyróżniając tzw. efebologię. Generalnie jednak reprezentował opinię, że pediatria spełnia rolę dyscypliny ogólnolekarskiej, metrykalnie jedynie ograniczonej ramami 18 lat, a biologicznie i psychospołecznie wykraczającej niejednokrotnie poza te granice (Ryc.

“The authors would like to make an addition to the acknowl

“The authors would like to make an addition to the acknowledgments section and acknowledge the financial support of Action Medical Research, UK.

“The authors would like to make an addition to the acknowledgments section and acknowledge the financial support of Action Medical Research PI3K Inhibitor Library clinical trial (SP4506). “
“In 2002, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), in collaboration with other Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health, convened a meeting of scientific experts to discuss seminal research on behavioral, neural, endocrine, and immune system interactions in health and disease. To inform the development of a biobehavioral research agenda in cancer control, knowledge was extracted from contemporary studies of neuroimmune mechanisms of subjective experiences (e.g., stress, loneliness, and pain), biological processes (e.g., circadian rhythmicity, sleep, wound healing, sickness

behavior, and apoptosis), and disease outcomes (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Brain, Behavior, and Immunity published the Biological Mechanisms of Psychosocial Effects on Disease supplement in February 2003. This seminal volume captured state-of-the-science reviews and commentaries by leading experts in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and served as a catalyst for biobehavioral 1 research conducted in a cancer context. In the decade prior to the NCI commissioned supplement, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity published only 12 cancer-relevant articles. Since the 2003 supplement, the journal has featured 128 cancer-relevant papers that have generated 3361 citations (data from SCOPUS, retrieved November 1, 2012), relative to 55 papers on PNI and cancer, published in other peer review journals during the same time period. Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase These bibliometric data highlight Brain, Behavior, and Immunity as a leading scholarly outlet for research on the biology of psychological and social experiences and the integrated mechanisms associated with cancer as a complex disease process. The current volume celebrates

the 10-year anniversary of the 2003 supplement. This collection of invited reviews and research articles captures important discoveries, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations that have emerged in the past decade to advance mechanistic and translational understanding of biobehavioral influences on tumor biology, cancer treatment-related sequelae, and cancer outcomes. Early clinical investigations focused almost exclusively on psychosocial modulations of the humoral and cellular immune response and, to some extent, on DNA repair (Andersen et al., 1994, Antoni, 2003, Kiecolt-Glaser and Glaser, 1999 and Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2002). Women at an increased genetic risk for cancer exhibited specific immune impairments and abnormalities in their endocrine response to stress (Bovbjerg and Valdimarsdottir, 1993, Dettenborn et al., 2005 and Gold et al., 2003).

8 g/cm3), comprising gasoline and kerosene Group I oils (i e , n

8 g/cm3), comprising gasoline and kerosene. Group I oils (i.e., non-persistent) tend to dissipate completely through evaporation within a few hours and do not normally form emulsions. Group II and III oils can lose up to 40% Crizotinib by volume through evaporation. Because of their tendency to form viscous emulsions, there is an initial volume increase as well limited natural dispersion, particularly in the case of Group III oils. Group IV oils are very persistent due to their lack of volatile material and high viscosity, which preclude both evaporation and dispersion (ITOPF, 2013). The volume and type of oil released when of

maritime accidents will naturally depend on the type of accident (sinking of oil tanker, with or without hull splitting; grounding of tankers with variable degrees of hull rupture; collision between oil tankers; collision between smaller ships) and on the tonnage of stricken ships. Most of the oil tankers crossing the Mediterranean Sea head to, or from, the Suez Canal – which imposes a tonnage check details limit of 240,000 deadweight tonnes (DWT) on oil tankers (Suez Canal Rules of Navigation). However, open sea harbours in the Mediterranean can

accommodate ultra large crude carriers with up to 550,000 DWT. Accidents in production platforms, in contrast, depend closely on local geological conditions and rig equipment (e.g., Deepwater Horizon Investigation Report, 2010) (Fig. 9). In hydrocarbon production stages, accidents are mostly related to pipeline ruptures and explosions on rigs (e.g., Alpha-Piper, Cullen, 1993), with the type of hydrocarbon produced by the platforms being of paramount importance to any spill predictions. Gas blowouts such as the West Vanguard blowout in Norway (October 1985) are capable of releasing large amounts of gas into

the water column, but will not result in large oil spills (Sætren, 2007). Question 3 relates to the response civil protection, governmental institutes, ship and rig operators will provide in the hours after the spill accidents. Based on the experience of two table top exercises for oil spill accidents organised in the context of Interleukin-3 receptor the NEREIDs project ( we suggest the following procedure for specific accidents as a guide to address Question 3: (a) Ship accidents – evaluate type of accident (grounding, collision, hull rupture), identify type of oil released, and assess distance to shoreline. Consider if towing the ship to harbour or coastal embayment, where shoreline susceptibility is known to be low, are feasible options. Cleaning operations should start immediately upon arrival and should focus on emptying remaining crude from tanks, fuel from ships, and on containing any spills. Finally we suggest cleaning operations to start soon after the spill by using common apparatuses such as booms, skimmers, dredges and pumping vessels (Fig. 9).

The antimicrobial activity predictions were almost all positive,

The antimicrobial activity predictions were almost all positive, except in the case of EEE61250 (O. sativa), only negatively predicted by CAMP discriminant analysis. These predictions show that overall the properties of these sequences are similar to those from well-known antimicrobial peptides, such as hydrophobicity, net charge and secondary structure [46] and [57]. Loose et al. [38] proposed that AMPs work as a formal language, analogous to a grammatical structure composed of several rules (patterns and motifs) and a vocabulary (amino acids). In this view, the positive predictions are probably due to the grammatical structure of chitin-binding motif, present in all putative mature

sequences here reported. Other evidence of their biological activities was drawn from molecular models in complex to (GlcNAc)3 (Fig. 2) in addition to the molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed mechanism of action of Raf inhibitor fungicidal activity

in hevein-like peptides is related to the inhibition of cell wall elongation. The molecular dynamics show that the four hevein-like peptides here reported can bind to (GlcNAc)3 (Fig. S1). Among the sequences here reported, the sequence EEE61250 (O. sativa) seems to have the strongest fungicidal activity against chitin-containing fungi. The molecular model indicates that it interacts with chitin through five amino acid residues making six hydrogen bonds ( Fig. 2B). Besides, this sequence has aromatic residues identical to Pn-AMP2 [33], one of the strongest hevein-like Selleck EPZ-6438 peptides already reported, which requires concentrations of 0.6–75 μg ml−1 for 50% of inhibition of fungal growth. Following the same reasoning, the activity of CBI18789 (V. vinifera) would be similar to EAFP2 [24], since their aromatic residues are identical. And for XP_002973523 (S. moellendorffii), the activity would be similar to Ac-AMP2 [9]. Nonetheless, for the peptide XP_001804616 Parvulin (P. nodorum), there

are no peptides with identical active residues. Otherwise, this peptide can also make four hydrogen bonds ( Fig. 2D). Moreover its hydrophobic interactions are reduced, since it lacks an aromatic residue. Taking into account the electrostatic surface, all peptides might interact with anionic membranes from chitin-free fungi and/or bacteria, since they have an amphipathic electrostatic surface ( Fig. 6). However, despite these indications, only in vitro tests can reveal their actual activities. In fact, the most intriguing sequence is XP_001804616 (P. nodorum). Although the hevein domain was previously identified in the chimerolectin CPB1 from M. grisea and also the fact that this domain appears in other chimerolectins in databases [29], XP_001804616 is the first report of a fungal hevein-like peptide, a merolectin. This peptide has two notorious differences when compared with plant hevein-like peptides.

The theoretical physical–chemical parameters were predicted and a

The theoretical physical–chemical parameters were predicted and analyzed by ProtParam ( The comparison of the amino acid sequence with other LmLAAO was performed using FASTA ( and BLAST ( In order to predict the three-dimensional structure of LmLAAO, a model based on sequence homology was manually built. Search for protein homologues was initially performed by using the BLAST search algorithm ( against the protein data bank ( The crystallographic structure of l-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon

halys pallas (PDB:1REO) ( Zhang et al., 2004), which shares 90% of sequence identity with LmLAAO, has been identified and used as a template for molecular modeling. Based on the sequence alignment performed by Multalin ( Corpet, 1988), amino acid substitutions learn more were manually included SB203580 cost in the model by using COOT ( Emsley and Cowtan, 2004). Structure refinement was performed using molecular dynamics with simulated annealing in CNS ( Brunger et al., 1998). Stereochemistry of the predicted model was checked by PROCHECK ( Laskowski et al., 1993). Animal care was in accordance with ethical recommendations of the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals of the Council of International Organizations of Medical

Sciences (CIOMS) and was approved by the Institutional Committee for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (CICUA) of the University of Costa Rica (no CICUA-012-08). The hemorrhagic activity was determined by intradermal injection of 50 μg of LmLAAO dissolved in 50 μL of PBS solution in the abdominal region of three mice (strain CD-1, 18–22 g). After 3 h, mice were sacrificed, and the skin was observed for

hemorrhagic halo formation (Gutiérrez et al., 1985). A group of 6 mice (CD-1, 18–22 g) were injected with 10 μg LmLAAO subcutaneously in the subplantar region of the right footpad. The left footpad was used as control and injected with PBS. At different time intervals (15 min, 1, 3 and 24 h), the thickness of the mice paws was measured with a low-pressure spring caliper (Lomonte et al., 1993). The formation selleck products of edema was expressed as a percentage of increment in footpad thickness. The systemic toxicity was evaluated in a group of 6 mice (CD-1, 18–22 g) by intravenous injection of 100 μg of LmLAAO. A group of 6 mice (CD-1, 18–22 g) injected with PBS was used as control. Animal behavior was monitored during the first 3 h after injection. After 24 h of injection, animals were sacrificed and the tissues of heart, lung and kidney were removed, dissected, and samples were processed for histological observation, embedded in paraffin, cut to 4 mm thick and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. A group of 5 mice (CD-1, 18–22 g) was injected intramuscularly in the right quadriceps with a solution containing 100 μg of LmLAAO dissolved in PBS.

Successful applications of 3-D FE model in hydroelastic analysis

Successful applications of 3-D FE model in hydroelastic analysis based on modal approach are found in the recent papers (Hirdaris et al., 2003, Malenica and Tuitman, 2008 and Iijima et al., 2008). Recently, 3-D FEM is directly coupled with 3-D Rankine panel method

in time domain by Kim et al. (2013). In the fluid domain, meanwhile, various numerical models have been proposed. For example, a second-order strip, a 3-D potential theory with a weakly nonlinear approach, and a Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) Cobimetinib cell line model have been applied to springing analysis (Jensen and Dogliani, 1996 and Oberhagemann and Moctar, 2011). The significant trend is to consider nonlinear excitation due to the fact that nonlinear springing can be important as well as linear springing. A body nonlinearity Natural Product Library high throughput may be one of the significant sources of nonlinear springing. Up to now, the 3-D potential theory with the weakly nonlinear approach is thought

to be the most practical method for the fluid domain. In the future, nonlinear free surface body interactions should be solved for nonlinear springing analysis (Shao and Faltinsen, 2010). For consideration of slamming loads, 2-D methods are commonly used because 3-D method requires complicated treatment and heavy computational burden compared to the linear panel method of 3-D potential flow. This paper presents three different structure models, which are combined with the B-spline 3-D Rankine panel method. Many WISH program families are based on the method (Kim et al., 2011).

The three models are (1) the beam theory model, (2) the modified beam model based on the 3-D FE model, and (3) the 3-D FE model. Characteristics of the models are discussed regarding the results for a 60 m barge, a 6500 TEU containership, and an experimental model of a virtual 10,000 TEU containership. A similar study is found in the work of Hirdaris et al. (2003). However, the present study couples fluid and structure models in the time domain and also simulates nonlinear springing and whipping.t The fluid motion surrounding a ship structure is solved by a numerical method based on a 3-D potential theory. The method in this study follows the works of Nakos (1990), Kring (1994) and Kim and Kim (2008). Let us consider a Cartesian coordinate system with its origin on mean water level as shown in Fig. 1. It moves with the advance of the ship with forward speed along the x  -axis. The origin is located on the mass center projected on the water plane. The irrotational flow of inviscid and incompressible fluid is assumed, and the governing equation of the fluid motion reduces to the Laplace equation. The set of the boundary value problem is expressed as equation(1) ∇2ϕ=0inΩF equation(2) ∂ϕ∂n=U→⋅n→+∂u→∂t⋅n→onSB equation(3) [ddt+∇ϕ⋅∇][z−ζ(x,y,t)]=0onz=ζ(x,y,t) equation(4) dϕdt=−gζ−12∇ϕ⋅∇ϕonz=ζ(x,y,t)where d/dt=∂/∂t−U→⋅∇ is Galilean transformation. In order to linearize the boundary conditions of Eqs.